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Many "higher-order" mental functions are subserved by large-scale neurocognitive networks comprising several spatially distributed and functionally specialized brain regions. We here report statistical and graphical methods of functional magnetic resonance imaging data analysis which can be used to elucidate the functional relationships (i.e., connectivity(More)
Somatic sensation can be localized precisely, whereas localization of visceral sensation is vague, possibly reflecting differences in the pattern of somatic and visceral input to the cerebral cortex. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the cortical processing of sensation arising from the proximal (somatic) and distal (visceral) esophagus(More)
Many theoretical accounts of selective attention and memory retrieval include reference to active inhibitory processes, such as those argued to underlie the negative priming effect. fMRI was used in order to investigate the areas of cortical activation associated with Stroop interference, Stroop facilitation and Stroop negative priming tasks. The most(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging gives high quality images of the urinary bladder with excellent contrast. We report here the first application of dynamic, multi-slice, echo planar imaging to a study of urinary bladder emptying. Changes in urinary bladder volumes and rates of urine expulsion from the bladder have been measured simultaneously with bladder(More)
An examination of respiratory control, proton pumping, and the pH dependence of the redox potential of cytochrome a is reported for subunit III-depleted rat liver cytochrome oxidase prepared by chromatography in laurylmaltoside. The results indicate a facilitating rather than essential role for subunit III in these properties related to energy conservation.
Studies were undertaken to assess the postulated involvement of subunit III in the proton-linked functions of cytochrome c oxidase. The effect of pH on the steady-state kinetic [corrected] parameters of subunit III containing and subunit III depleted cytochrome oxidase was determined by using beef heart and rat liver enzymes reconstituted into phospholipid(More)
Testing is a vital component of software engineering. As complex programs become integrated into all aspects of society, it is important that there exist no errors that could compromise safety, security or even financial investment. In this paper, we specifically examine path testing, and how it can be used to detect errors within a piece of code. The core(More)
The effects of altering the pH and electrical components of the membrane potential on the visible spectra and oxygen consumption rates of cytochrome oxidase vesicles were examined during steady-state respiration using cytochrome c as the substrate. Heme a was found to be 30-55% reduced in the presence of a membrane potential, becoming more reduced when the(More)
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