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Hexarelin (HEX) is a synthetic GHRP which acts on specific receptors at both the pituitary and the hypothalamic level to stimulate GH release both in animals and in humans. Like other GHRPs, HEX possesses also acute ACTH and cortisol-releasing activity similar to that of hCRH. The mechanisms underlying the stimulatory effect of GHRPs on(More)
OBJECTIVE Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is strongly associated with obesity (OB) and is characterized by several changes in endocrine functions, e.g. GH/IGF-I axis, adrenal and thyroid activity. It is still unclear whether these alterations simply reflect overweight or include peculiar hypoxia-induced hormonal alterations. Hormonal evaluations(More)
Alprazolam (AL), a benzodiazepine which activates gamma-amino butyrric acid (GABA)-ergic receptors, exerts a clear inhibitory effect on the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and is able to markedly reduce the ACTH response to metyrapone-induced inhibition of glucocorticoid feedback. It has been suggested that its inhibitory action(More)
Animal studies indicate that mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the hippocampus play a major role in the glucocorticoid feedback control of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Specifically, MR mediate the proactive feedback of glucocorticoids in the maintenance of basal HPA activity. The stimulatory effect of intracerebroventricular and(More)
The process of microbial translocation was studied using Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, or endotoxin instilled into Thiry-Vella loops of thermally injured guinea pigs and rats. Translocation of C. albicans occurred by direct penetration of enterocytes by a unique process different from classical phagocytosis. Translocation between enterocytes was not(More)
GH-releasing peptides (GHRPs) are synthetic, nonnatural molecules that strongly stimulate GH secretion, but also slightly increase PRL, ACTH, and cortisol levels in man. To investigate the mechanism underlying the ACTH- and cortisol-releasing activity of GHRPs in man, we compared the ACTH- and cortisol-releasing activity of Hexarelin (HEX; 2.0(More)
Ghrelin is generally influenced by energy balance status and is inversely associated with body mass index (BMI), being reduced in simple obesity, notable exception being Prader Willi syndrome, and elevated in several conditions of undernutrition, including anorexia nervosa (AN). Interestingly, ghrelin levels have also been found elevated in patients with(More)
The negative feedback exerted by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on GH secretion occurs at the pituitary, as well as the hypothalamic level, via stimulation of SS and/or inhibition of GHRH release. In fact, recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) administration inhibits basal GH secretion, at least in fasted humans, though its effect on the GH response to(More)
Hexarelin (His-D-2-methyl-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2) is a new synthetic growth hormone (GH)-releasing hexapeptide. The mechanism of action of hexarelin in man is not fully elucidated. As for other GH-releasing peptides, an action on both the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus has been hypothesized. In the present study, we evaluated the modulation of(More)
Because of the role of serotonin (5HT) in regulating food intake and mood, several studies have focused their attention on the assessment of serotonergic activity in eating disorders, and in particular in anorexia nervosa, but the results have been inconsistent. Citalopram, a highly selective 5HT reuptake inhibitor, has been recently reported as a(More)