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All eukaryotes carry out glycolysis, interestingly, not all using the same enzymes. Anaerobic eukaryotes face the challenge of fewer molecules of ATP extracted per molecule of glucose due to their lack of a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle. This may have pressured anaerobic eukaryotes to acquire the more ATP-efficient alternative glycolytic enzymes, such(More)
A rainbow trout major heat-shock-protein-like gene (hsp 70) and corresponding cDNA clones were isolated by hybridization to heterologous hsp70 probes. DNA sequencing revealed that this gene is structurally similar to a mammalian heat-shock-cognate hsc70 gene and consists of eight introns. Northern blot and primer extension analyses showed that the(More)
For the first time, we report the genomic organization and characterization of Cathepsin L-like cysteine protease gene cluster from the members of Leishmania donovani complex. The cysteine protease gene cluster of Leishmania chagasi has five copies of tandemly arranged genes. The first gene (Ldccys1A) is identical to Ldccys1 cDNA and is predominantly(More)
The mechanisms by which Leishmania parasites survive exposure to highly reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species within phagosomes of macrophages are not well known. Recently it has been shown that RNS alone is sufficient and necessary to control Leishmania donovani infection in mice (Murray, H. W., and Nathan, C. F. (1999) J. Exp. Med. 189,(More)
The expression of three human metallothionein genes, MT-IIA, MT-IF, and MT-IG was studied in the human hepatoblastoma (HepG2), the hepatocarcinoma (Hep3B2), the embryonic kidney (Hek 293), and the lymphoblastoid-derived (Wi-L2) cell lines. The pattern of expression of each specific MT gene in response to various heavy metals was different among the four(More)
We have isolated, using nick-translated cloned protamine cDNA's as probes, several genomic clones containing protamine gene sequences from a Charon 4A library of Eco R1 digested rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) DNA. One clone was chosen for detailed study and the 2.5 kbp Bam HI-Eco R1 restriction fragment containing the gene was subcloned in the plasmid(More)
Metallothionein (MT) genes encode small proteins that chelate metal ions through metal-thiolate bonds with cysteine residues. MTs may have a role in cellular zinc homeostasis and metal detoxification. Congruent with these putative functions, MT gene transcription is induced by metals via multiple metal-responsive elements (MREs) present in the MT gene(More)
We have examined the effect of heavy metals on the expression of two major groups of stress-induced proteins in fish cell lines: the 70 kDa heat-shock proteins (hsp70) and metallothioneins (MTs). The rainbow trout hepatoma (RTH) cell line synthesized the hsp70 protein in response to zinc and heat shock, while chinook salmon embryonic (CHSE) cells(More)
Elevation of the incubation temperature of Chinook salmon embryo cells from 20 to 24 degrees C or exposure to heavy metals such as CdCl2 (5 microM) or ZnCl2 (100 to 500 microM) induces the reversible expression of a set of heat shock or stress proteins. Continuous exposure of the cells to either metal ions or heat shock results in recovery of protein(More)
We have isolated and characterized two superoxide dismutase (SOD) cDNAs from a Leishmania chagasi promastigote cDNA library using degenerate primers derived from conserved amino acid residues of previously isolated manganese and iron SODs. Comparison of these two L. chagasi SOD deduced amino acid sequences with previously isolated MnSOD and FeSOD amino acid(More)