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Appreciation of the role that inflammatory mediators play in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis continues to be hampered by two related misconceptions. The first is that to be pathogenically significant a neurodegenerative mechanism must be primary. The second is that inflammation merely occurs to clear the detritis of already existent pathology. The(More)
We have characterized amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) concentration, Abeta deposition, paired helical filament formation, cerebrovascular amyloid angiopathy, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) allotype, and synaptophysin concentration in entorhinal cortex and superior frontal gyrus of normal elderly control (ND) patients, Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and high(More)
We evaluated entorhinal cortex and superior frontal gyrus for hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, including inflammation, in three patient sets: AD patients, nondemented elderly patients with few or no neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and amyloid beta peptide (A beta) deposits, i.e. normal controls (NC), and nondemented elderly patients with(More)
Activation of microglia is a central part of the chronic inflammatory processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the brains of AD patients, activated microglia are associated with amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide plaques. A number of previous studies have shown that aggregated synthetic Abeta peptide activates cultured microglia to produce a range inflammatory(More)
Receptor-mediated interactions with amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) could be important in the evolution of the inflammatory processes and cellular dysfunction that are prominent in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. One candidate receptor is the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), which can bind Abeta and transduce signals leading to cellular(More)
The membrane attack complex, C5b-9, is of considerable importance in many inflammatory reactions. It is the terminal, cytolytic component of both classical and alternative pathway activation, and its presence presupposes other potentially destructive complement constituents, including anaphylotoxins and opsonins. We have characterized C5b-9 and its C9(More)
Microglia are widely held to play important pathophysiologic roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD). On exposure to amyloid beta peptide (A beta) they exhibit chemotactic, phagocytic, phenotypic and secretory responses consistent with scavenger cell activity in a localized inflammatory setting. Because AD microglial chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and secretory(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a uniquely human disorder. Despite intense research, the lack of availability of model systems has hindered AD studies though in recent years transgenic mouse models have been produced, which develop AD-like amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) plaques. For the study of inflammatory changes in AD brains, these transgenic mice may have(More)
Brain inflammation is widely documented to occur in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its sources are still incompletely understood. Here, we present in vitro and in situ evidence that, like amyloid beta peptide (Abeta), tau, the major protein constituent of the neurofibrillary tangle, is a potent, antibody-independent activator of the classical complement(More)
Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is a multi-ligand, cell surface receptor expressed by neurons, microglia, astrocytes, cerebral endothelial cells, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells. At least three major types of the RAGE isoforms (full length, C-truncated, and N-truncated) are present in human(More)