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Every field of science relies on having its trusted sources of knowledge, the books that unite investigators with a common language and provide them with the basic toolbox for approaching problems. Physics, for instance, has its ''Landau and Lifschitz''; electrical engineers routinely turn to ''Horowitz and Hill''; and many a neuro-scientist was brought up(More)
Cortical neurons receive synaptic inputs from thousands of afferents that fire action potentials at rates ranging from less than 1 hertz to more than 200 hertz. Both the number of afferents and their large dynamic range can mask changes in the spatial and temporal pattern of synaptic activity, limiting the ability of a cortical neuron to respond to its(More)
Gain modulation is a prominent feature of neuronal activity recorded in behaving animals, but the mechanism by which it occurs is unknown. By introducing a barrage of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances that mimics conditions encountered in vivo into pyramidal neurons in slices of rat somatosensory cortex, we show that the gain of a neuronal(More)
Cortical synapses exhibit several forms of short-term plasticity, but the contribution of this plasticity to visual response dynamics is unknown. In part, this is because the simple patterns of stimulation used to probe plasticity in vitro do not correspond to patterns of activity that occur in vivo. We have developed a method of quantitatively(More)
In a number of systems including wind detection in the cricket, visual motion perception and coding of arm movement direction in the monkey and place cell response to position in the rat hippocampus, firing rates in a population of tuned neurons are correlated with a vector quantity. We examine and compare several methods that allow the coded vector to be(More)
Long-term modification of synaptic efficacy can depend on the timing of pre- and postsynaptic action potentials. In model studies, such spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) introduces the desirable features of competition among synapses and regulation of postsynaptic firing characteristics. STDP strengthens synapses that receive correlated input, which(More)
We study the impact of correlated neuronal firing rate variability on the accuracy with which an encoded quantity can be extracted from a population of neurons. Contrary to widespread belief, correlations in the variabilities of neuronal firing rates do not, in general, limit the increase in coding accuracy provided by using large populations of encoding(More)
Neural circuits display complex activity patterns both spontaneously and when responding to a stimulus or generating a motor output. How are these two forms of activity related? We develop a procedure called FORCE learning for modifying synaptic strengths either external to or within a model neural network to change chaotic spontaneous activity into a wide(More)
Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic coupling can have counter-intuitive effects on the synchronization of neuronal firing. While it might appear that excitatory coupling would lead to synchronization, we show that frequently inhibition rather than excitation synchronizes firing. We study two identical neurons described by integrate-and-fire models, general(More)