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—Outdoor testing of photovoltaic (PV) modules plays a critical role in discovering the degradation modes, mechanisms and rates of materials, components and systems under real world climate conditions. The Solar Durability and Lifetime Extension (SDLE) center at Case Western Reserve University has established a highly instrumented outdoor test facility, the… (More)
The value of showing important, yet separated, parts of a document simultaneously motivates head-tail display. 35% of Web documents tested benefit. A head-tail display provides a query-dependent view of a document using a split window. One subwindow shows the beginning of the document, a particularly important part of many documents. The other subwindow… (More)
In situ fluorescence emission spectra of mesophyll and bundle-sheath chloroplasts of Dichanthium annulatum (Forsk.) Stapf are measured by a microscopic technique using black and white infrared film as a detector. These spectra confirm the higher ratio of infrared to far-red fluorescence in bundle-sheath relative to mesophyll chloroplasts as predicted by… (More)
The precise spectral responses of infrared color film permit a rapid qualitative detection of the in situ fluorescence properties of chloroplasts in C4 plants. Fluorescing mesophyll and granal bundle-sheath chloroplasts appear yellow, indicating a predominance of far-red over infrared fluorescence. In contrast, fluorescing agranal bundle-sheath chloroplasts… (More)
A technique is described in which infrared black and white film is used to measure relative fluorescence yields and fluorescence emission spectra of the mesophyll and bundle-sheath chloroplasts of C4 plants in situ at room temperature. The spectra obtained with this technique are quite similar to those obtained by conventional techniques.