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TRAF6 is a signal transducer that activates IkappaB kinase (IKK) and Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) in response to pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). IKK activation by TRAF6 requires two intermediary factors, TRAF6-regulated IKK activator 1 (TRIKA1) and TRIKA2 (ref. 5). TRIKA1 is a dimeric(More)
Although the functional presence of beta(3)-adrenergic receptors (beta(3)-AR) in rodents is well established, its significance in human adipose tissue has been controversial. One of the issues confounding the experimental data has been the lack of potent and selective human beta(3)-AR ligands analogous to the rodent-specific agonist BRL37344. Recently, we(More)
Activation of IkappaB kinase (IKK) is the key step in stimulation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, which regulates many genes in the inflammatory response pathway. The molecular mechanism that underlies IKK activation in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is still unknown. Using mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MEKK3)-deficient(More)
By utilizing a human cDNA expression array blot (588 genes), we have observed overexpression of various transcription factors, cell cycle regulated kinases, and DNA repair genes in HTLV-1-infected T cells. One of the genes of interest, and focus in this study, is the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21/waf1. The p21/waf1 transcription and protein is(More)
The HIV-1 Tat protein is required for viral replication and is a potent stimulator of viral transcription. Although Tat has been extensively studied in various reductive paradigms, to date there is little information as to how this activator mediates transcription from natural nucleosomally packaged long terminal repeats. Here we show that CREB-binding(More)
Excessive airway obstruction is the cause of symptoms and abnormal lung function in asthma. As airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the effecter controlling airway calibre, it is suspected that dysfunction of ASM contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of ASM in the series of events leading to asthmatic symptoms is not clear. It is(More)
Productive high-titer infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires the activation of target cells. Infection of quiescent peripheral CD4 lymphocytes by HIV-1 results in incomplete, labile reverse transcripts and lack of viral progeny formation. An interplay between Tat and p53 has previously been reported, where Tat inhibited the(More)
Mice heterozygous at Aprt (adenine phosphoribosyltransferase) were used as a model to study in vivo loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in normal fibroblasts. Somatic cell variants that exhibited functional loss of the wild-type Aprt in vivo were recovered as APRT-deficient cell colonies after culturing in selection medium containing 2, 6-diaminopurine (DAP), an(More)
The m7GpppN cap structure of eukaryotic mRNA is formed cotranscriptionally by the sequential action of three enzymes: RNA triphosphatase, RNA guanylyltransferase, and RNA (guanine-7)-methyltransferase. A multifunctional polypeptide containing all three active sites is encoded by vaccinia virus. In contrast, fungi and Chlorella virus encode monofunctional(More)
The beta 3-adrenergic receptor is the predominant subtype of beta-adrenergic receptor expressed in adipose tissue. Recently, a naturally occurring mutation in the human beta 3-receptor gene has been described which results in substitution of the tryptophan residue at position 64 in the first intracellular loop with an arginine residue. The polymorphism,(More)