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We introduce non-linear σ-models in the framework of noncommutative geometry with special emphasis on models defined on the noncommutative torus. We choose as target spaces the two point space and the circle and illustrate some characteristic features of the corresponding σ-models. In particular we construct a σ-model instanton with topological charge equal(More)
INTRODUCTION Many patients undergoing cardiac surgery have risk factors for both atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke. The left atrial appendage (LAA) is the primary site for thrombi formation. The most severe complication of emboli derived from LAA is stroke, which is associated with a 12-month mortality rate of 38% and a 12-month recurrence rate of 17%.(More)
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