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[1] There is growing interest in the application of electrode‐based measurements for monitoring microbial processes in the Earth using biogeophysical methods. In this study, reactive electrode measurements were combined to electrical geophysical measurements during microbial sulfate reduction occurring in a column of silica beads saturated with natural(More)
Geophysics provides a multidimensional suite of investigative methods that are transforming our ability to see into the very fabric of the subsurface environment, and monitor the dynamics of its fluids and the biogeochemical reactions that occur within it. Here we document how geophysical methods have emerged as valuable tools for investigating shallow(More)
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. The main purpose of this report is to provide a vision for the use of geophysical instrumentation in watershed scale hydrological research. The aim of the report is to(More)
[1] The surface pattern of vegetation influences the composition and humification of peat laid down during the development of a bog, producing a subsurface hydrological structure that is expected to affect both the rate and pattern of water flow. Subsurface peat structures are routinely derived from the inspection of peat cores. However, logistical limits(More)
Details of Earth's shallow subsurface—a key component of the critical zone (CZ)—are largely obscured because making direct observations with sufficient density to capture natural characteristic spatial variability in physical properties is difficult. Yet this inaccessible region of the CZ is fundamental to processes that support ecosystems, society, and the(More)
an explanation, point by point and organized by reviewer, detailing how each comment has been addressed. The manuscript has been substantially modified to address all comments from the reviewers. We particularly stressed: 1) restructuring and shortening of all sections to make it less technical; and 2) better defined objectives which are stressed in the(More)