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This consensus document is aimed at reviewing evidence that the rhinitis-asthma links have peculiar features in athletes. Beside a review of epidemological data on the high prevalence of rhinitis and asthma in athletes, the effects on intense physical exercise on the immune system and repiratory functions are discussed, with special reference to the role of(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE Bronchoscopic technique is not standardized. Controversies exist with regard to premedication with sedatives before the test. To evaluate safety and efficacy of conscious sedation, we studied 100 randomized patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy; patients received premedication with lidocaine spray and atropine sulfate i.m. (nonsedation(More)
A group of 28 patients from Italy was studied who had asthma after consumption of snail. All patients also had asthma and/or rhinitis caused by house-dust mite. RAST analyses confirmed the combined sensitization to snail and mite. In a few sera, IgE antibodies reactive with other foods of invertebrate origin (mussel and shrimp) were detected. RAST(More)
Noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) via a nasal or facial mask is an effective treatment of hypercapnic acute respiratory failure (ARF) caused by various diseases preventing endotracheal intubation (ETI) in 60-90% of patients. The technique can even be effective for routine care, using simplified ventilators, after adequate(More)