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N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation, at the level of the spinal cord, has been shown to play an important role in the facilitation of nociception in several animal models. However, the use of NMDA antagonists as analgesics is limited by serious side effects due to nonselective effects among the NMDA receptor subtypes. Recent discoveries revealed(More)
BACKGROUND Morphine consumption after a given surgical procedure can vary considerably. Studies show that single nucleotide polymorphism involving the nucleotide position 118 at exon 1 of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) may play a role in mediating the effects of opioids. This study was performed to correlate the A118G polymorphism at OPRM1 with(More)
OBJECT Because modern imaging techniques now allow for early diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis, more conservative management options are possible. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of transpedicular instrumentation for treatment of thoracolumbar and lumbar spinal tuberculosis in patients with mild bone destruction and the main symptom of "instability(More)
PURPOSE Aberrant O-glycosylation of serum IgA(1) is presumed to be one of the main pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). beta1,3-galactosyltransferase (beta1,3GT), whose activity requires coexistence of a specific chaperone, is the main enzyme which participate in the glycosylation process. The current study was carried out to elucidate the(More)
The dynamics of plasma viremia were explored in a group of 12 simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that had received prior immunization with either nonrecombinant or trivalent (gag-pol, env) SIV-recombinant vaccinia viruses. Three distinct patterns of viral replication observed during and following primary viremia(More)
Quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) methods were used to quantify virion-associated human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) RNA in plasma from 66 patients with Centers for Disease Control stage I to IVC1 infection. HIV-1 RNA, ranging from 100 to nearly 22,000,000 copies per milliliter of plasma (corresponding to 50 to 11,000,000(More)
Pharmacological studies have implicated the spinal activation of excitatory amino acids, nitric oxide, and prostaglandins systems in the development of tactile and thermal hypersensitivity and central sensitization after peripheral inflammation. In the present study, using a chronically placed loop dialysis catheter, we examined in the unanesthetized rat(More)
UNLABELLED Preclinical studies suggest that systemic lidocaine acts at the level of the spinal dorsal horn to inhibit hyperalgesia resulting from nerve injury, yet no clinical data are available to support this view. Therefore, we sought to characterize the time course of lidocaine in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after an IV bolus injection of(More)
Acute HIV infection is accompanied by a sharp rise in virus titres that soon fall, but the role of humoral and cellular immunity is not clear in the control of initial virus replication. We have found seven HIV-1 infected subjects who had CD8 T-cell non-cytolytic anti-HIV activity in plasma many months before neutralising antibodies can be detected. We(More)
PURPOSE To compare the postoperative analgesic efficacy and safety of intrathecal (IT) neostigmine and IT morphine in patients undergoing total knee replacement under spinal anesthesia. METHODS Sixty patients scheduled for elective total knee replacement under spinal anesthesia were randomly divided into three equal groups which received IT 0.5%(More)