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Covalent attachment of functional proteins to a solid support is important for biosensors. One method employs thiol-terminal silanes and heterobifunctional crosslinkers such as N-succinimidyl 4-maleimidobutyrate (GMBS) to immobilize proteins through amino groups onto glass, silica, silicon or platinum surfaces. In this report, several heterobifunctional(More)
The array biosensor is capable of detecting multiple targets rapidly and simultaneously on the surface of a single waveguide. Sandwich and competitive fluoroimmunoassays have been developed to detect high and low molecular weight toxins, respectively, in complex samples. Recognition molecules (usually antibodies) were first immobilized in specific locations(More)
Proteins were attached in defined geometric patterns on a surface. A prerequisite to making a pattern of proteins is generation of surfaces resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption. This was accomplished via oxidation of the thiol terminus of an organosilane self-assembled monolayer film by deep ultraviolet (DUV) irradiation. The resultant surface(More)
The occurrence of different mycotoxins in cereal products calls for the development of a rapid, sensitive, and reliable detection method that is capable of analyzing samples for multiple toxins simultaneously. In this study, we report the development and application of a multiplexed competitive assay for the simultaneous detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) and(More)
A procedure for covalent immobilization of functional proteins on silica substrates was developed using thiol-terminal silanes and heterobifunctional cross-linkers. Using this procedure, a high density of functional antibodies was bound to glass cover slips and silica fibers. The amount of anti-IgG antibody immobilized was determined to be in the range of(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from an event that causes rapid acceleration and deceleration of the brain or penetration of the skull with an object. Responses to stimuli and questions, loss of consciousness, and altered behavior are symptoms currently used to justify brain imaging for diagnosis and therapeutic guidance. Tests based on such symptoms(More)
A rapid, sensitive, analytical method for the detection of Clostridium botulinum toxin has been developed. The fiber optic-based biosensor utilizes the evanescent wave of a tapered optical fiber for signal discrimination. A 50 mW argon-ion laser, which generates laser light at 514 nm, is used in conjunction with an optical fiber probe that is tapered at the(More)
The Multi-Analyte Array Biosensor (MAAB) has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) with the goal of simultaneously detecting and identifying multiple target agents in complex samples with minimal user manipulation. This paper will focus on recent improvements in the biochemical and engineering aspects of this instrument. These improvements(More)
The following review focuses on progress made in the last five years with the NRL Array Biosensor, a portable instrument for rapid and simultaneous detection of multiple targets. Since 2003, the Array Biosensor has been automated and miniaturized for operation at the point-of-use. The Array Biosensor has also been used to demonstrate (1) quantitative(More)
Contamination of food with infectious agents, intentional or not, is a global concern with far-reaching economic and social impact. Staphylococcal enterotoxins are a major cause of food poisoning, but most methods for the identification of these agents in food require extensive pretreatment or concentration of the sample prior to analysis. The array(More)