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TRAF6 is a signal transducer in the NF-kappaB pathway that activates IkappaB kinase (IKK) in response to proinflammatory cytokines. We have purified a heterodimeric protein complex that links TRAF6 to IKK activation. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis reveals that this complex is composed of the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Ubc13 and the Ubc-like protein(More)
The receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) is essential for the activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). Here, we present evidence that TNFalpha induces the polyubiquitination of RIP1 at Lys-377 and that this polyubiquitination is required for the activation of IkappaB kinase (IKK) and NF-kappaB. A(More)
The activation of NF-kappaB and IKK requires an upstream kinase complex consisting of TAK1 and adaptor proteins such as TAB1, TAB2, or TAB3. TAK1 is in turn activated by TRAF6, a RING domain ubiquitin ligase that facilitates the synthesis of lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chains. Here we present evidence that TAB2 and TAB3 are receptors that bind(More)
The CARD domain protein BCL10 and paracaspase MALT1 are essential for the activation of IkappaB kinase (IKK) and NF-kappaB in response to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Here we present evidence that TRAF6 ubiquitin ligase and TAK1 protein kinase mediate IKK activation by BCL10 and MALT1. RNAi-mediated silencing of MALT1, TAK1, TRAF6, and TRAF2(More)
Fatty acid alkyl esters, also called biodiesel, are environmentally friendly and show great potential as an alternative liquid fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils or fats with chemical catalysts or lipase. Immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst draws high attention because that process is "greener". This article reviews the current(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells give rise to all cell types of an organism. Since mutations at this embryonic stage would affect all cells and be detrimental to the overall health of an organism, robust mechanisms must exist to ensure that genomic integrity is maintained. To test this proposition, we compared the capacity of murine ES cells to repair DNA(More)
This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of superantigen gene profiles and the presence of exfoliative toxin genes in community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) isolated from Chinese children, and simultaneously to assess virulence gene profiles and genetic background. Of the CA-MRSA isolates, 88.9 % (88/99) harboured toxin(More)
Accumulation of mutations in embryonic stem (ES) cells would be detrimental to an embryo derived from these cells, and would adversely affect multiple organ systems and tissue types. ES cells have evolved multiple mechanisms to preserve genomic integrity that extend beyond those found in differentiated cell types. The present study queried whether mismatch(More)