L . C . Appel

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One of the practical difficulties with the frequently proposed use of liposomes for delivery of water-soluble substances to cells in whole organisms is that liposomes are relatively unstable during storage. We have studied the ability of trehalose, a carbohydrate commonly found at high concentrations in organisms capable of surviving dehydration, to(More)
The synthesis and characterization of nine new heteroleptic alkoxides of niobium is described. Metathesis reactions of Nb(2)Cl(10) with (t)BuCH(2)OH and pyridine (py) or 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) affords monomeric octahedral complexes Nb(OCH(2)(t)Bu)(5)py (1) and Nb(OCH(2)(t)Bu)(5)DMAP (2), respectively, in high yields (>60%). The same reaction with(More)
Several improvements to the MAST plant and diagnostics have facilitated new studies advancing the physics basis for ITER and DEMO, as well as for future spherical tokamaks. Using the increased heating capabilities PNBI ≤ 3.8 MW H-mode at Ip = 1.2 MA was accessed showing that the energy confinement on MAST scales more weakly with Ip and more strongly with Bt(More)
H-mode plasmas have been achieved on the MAST spherical tokamak at input power considerably higher than predicted by conventional threshold scalings. Following L- H transition, a clear improvement in energy confinement is obtained, exceeding recent international scalings even at densities approaching the Greenwald density limit. Transition is accompanied by(More)
After vaginal application econazol is absorbed to a high degree. Plasma levels are maintained for a relatively long period. Metabolism occurs in the vagina already. As there are no objections concerning toxicology the fact of absorption is considered positive from the therapeutical view-point because this drug does exert its effect not only in the vaginal(More)
Long period sawteeth have been observed to result in the low-β triggering of neo-classical tearing modes (NTMs), which can significantly degrade plasma confinement. In ITER, the stabilising effects of the fusion-born α particles are likely to exacerbate this. Consequently, it is important to develop a detailed physical understanding of sawtooth behaviour.(More)
In MAST the population of fast ions created by the neutral beam injection system is super-Alfvénic and both the normalised fast ion pressure, βf, and the ratio of fast ion energy content to thermal energy content are in excess of the values expected in DEMO for fusion born α-particles, thus allowing interpolation (and not extrapolation) of the parameter(More)
We report here on the controlled synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of different polymorphs of niobium pentoxide grown by CVD of new single-source precursors. Nb2O5 films deposited at different temperatures showed systematic phase evolution from low-temperature tetragonal (TT-Nb2O5, T-Nb2O5) to high temperature monoclinic(More)