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Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by a number of motor and behavioral abnormalities that could be considered deficits of a "no task" or "resting" state, including resting motor findings and defects in emerging from a resting state (e.g., resting tremor, elevated resting tone, abulia, akinesia, apathy). PET imaging, and recently, the MRI technique of(More)
PURPOSE To characterize the timing of differentiation, antigenic expression, morphology, proliferative potential, and apoptosis during astrocyte differentiation in the rat retina in vivo. METHODS Whole mounts of rat retinae from embryonic day (E) 13 to postnatal day (P) 21 and adults were examined utilizing combinations of Pax2, GFAP, vimentin, S100, and(More)
Apathy and depression are heterogeneous syndromes with symptoms that overlap clinically. This clinical overlap leads to problems with classification and diagnosis in clinical populations. No functional imaging study has attempted to separate brain regions altered in apathy from those altered in depression in a clinical population. Parkinson disease (PD) is(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate evidence for the presence of vascular precursor cells (angioblasts) and astrocyte precursor cells (APCs) in the developing human retina and determine their relationship. METHODS Pax-2/GFAP/CD-34 triple-label immunohistochemistry was applied to four retinas aged 12, 14, 16, and 20 weeks of gestation (WG) to label APCs, astrocytes, and(More)
Mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) regulate blood flow and contribute to vessel stability. We examined whether mural cell changes accompany age-related alterations in the microvasculature of the central nervous system. The retinas of young adult and aged Wistar rats were subjected to immunohistofluorescence analysis of alpha-smooth muscle actin(More)
PURPOSE Dilated and tortuous vessels (plus disease) in ROP is a grim prognostic indicator of visual outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine whether alterations in pericytes and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), are associated with the pathogenesis of ROP, including plus disease. METHODS Kittens were exposed to either 4 (standard obliterative model)(More)
PURPOSE To examine mural cell differentiation and pericyte ensheathment during human choroidal vascular formation and into adulthood. METHODS Triple- and double-labeled immunohistochemistry (alpha-smooth muscle actin [αSMA], desmin, NG2, calponin, caldesmon, CD44, CD34, and CD39) were applied to human fetal (8-32 weeks' gestation) and adult choroidal and(More)
The authors examined the neural and cognitive bases for sex differences in verbal memory in 57 patients who underwent left anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for the treatment of intractable seizures. On the California Verbal Learning Test (D. C. Delis, J. H. Kramer, E. Kaplan, & B. A. Ober, 1987), women recalled more words than men both before and after(More)
BACKGROUND Peginterferon alfa and ribavirin combination therapy is an effective treatment for many patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Reducing the length of treatment may be advantageous. We performed a systematic review and economic evaluation to assess shorter treatment duration of this regimen. METHODS We searched fourteen bibliographic(More)
PURPOSE Lymphatics subserve many important functions in the human body including maintenance of fluid homeostasis, immune surveillance, and tumor metastasis. Our aim was to provide structural and phenotypic evidence of lymphatic-like structures in the human choroid, including details of its development. METHODS Using multiple-marker immunohistochemistry(More)