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This article provides new empirical results regarding the demand for and supply of title, the impact of title on land value, and its effects on agricultural investment on Brazilian frontiers. We present survey data from 1992 and 1993 from the state of Para on the characteristics of the settlers, land tenure, land agencies involved, land values, and(More)
Government policies are needed when people's behaviors fail to deliver the public good. Those policies will be most effective if they can stimulate long-term changes in beliefs and norms, creating and reinforcing the behaviors needed to solidify and extend the public good.It is often the short-term acceptability of potential policies, rather than their(More)
We extend the literature on interest group behavior and economic policy outcomes by examining how groups with limited resources (votes and campaign contributions) effectively influence political action through the control of information provided to voters through the media. Voters in turn lobby politicians to take actions desired by the group. In this(More)
We introduce financial constraints in a theoretical analysis of illegal immigration. Intermediaries finance the migration costs of wealth-constrained migrants, who enter temporary servitude contracts to pay back the debt. These debt/labor contracts are more easily enforceable in the illegal than in the legal sector of the host country. Hence, when moving(More)
This is a longer version of the paper of the same title that is published in Explorations in Economic History in 2006. It contains extensive robustness checks, appendices, and detail on the sources that had to be cut for space reasons in the published paper. The authors are deeply indebted to Larry Neal and Joseph Mason who facilitated the collection of the(More)
We develop a framework to classify transaction costs. Our framework is based on the recognition that the types of transaction costs encountered in organizing production vary across the factors of production and over the stages of the production. Our framework allows us to distinguish between the transaction costs of using the market and those of using the(More)
This paper analyzes a model of rural conflicts in Brazil involving squatters, landowners, the President, the courts and INCRA, the land reform agency. In this model squatters and landowners strategically choose to engage in violence taking into consideration how this affects the probability that the land will be expropriated in the squatters’ favor as part(More)
We present a conceptual framework to better understand the interaction between settlement and the emergence of de facto property rights on frontiers prior to governments establishing and enforcing de jure property rights. In this framework, potential rents associated with more exclusivity drives “demand” for commons arrangements but demand is not a(More)
Association meetings for helpful comments and/or discussion. I am especially grateful to Kevin Hallock for invaluable comments and support. Abstract This study explores the effects of attending predominantly-female high schools on labor market outcomes. The existing literature about these schools is quite limited, and most research focuses on role-model(More)