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Factors associated with concentrations of energy-yielding nutrients in human milk were examined at 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo postpartum in the DARLING (Davis Area Research on Lactation, Infant Nutrition and Growth) Study. Samples were obtained by complete expression of alternate breasts over 24 h. Milk energy density was highly correlated with lipid concentration;(More)
Intake and growth were compared between matched cohorts of infants either breast-fed (BF) or formula-fed (FF) until > or = 12 mo of age. Total energy intake at 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo averaged 0.36, 0.34, 0.35, and 0.38 MJ.kg-1.d-1 (85.9, 80.1, 83.6, and 89.8 kcal.kg-1.d-1) among BF infants vs 0.41, 0.40, 0.39, and 0.41 MJ.kg-1.d-1 (98.7, 94.7, 93.6, and 98.0(More)
Breast-fed infants grow less rapidly after the first 2 to 3 months of age than current standards. The DARLING study (Davis Area Research on Lactation, Infant Nutrition and Growth) was designed to evaluate whether this pattern should be considered "faltering" or is a normal outcome even under optimal conditions. Data on intake, growth, morbidity, activity,(More)
We examined if the timing of introduction of solid foods was related to growth, intake, morbidity, activity or motor development among infants either breast fed or formula fed until > or = 12 months of age. Breast-fed infants given solids before 6 months of age (earlysol) consumed less breast milk at 6 and 9 months of age than those given solids > or = 6(More)
Factors related to milk volume and sources of variance in intake were examined using data at 3 months from the longitudinal Davis Area Research on Lactation, Infant Nutrition and Growth study. Milk intake of 73 exclusively breast-fed infants was measured by 4-day test-weighing, correcting for insensible water loss. Total volume extracted was assessed by a(More)
Weight and triceps-skinfold thickness were measured until 24 mo postpartum in matched cohorts of women who breast-fed for > or = 12 mo (BF; n = 46) or < or = 3 mo (FF; n = 39). In the BF group, breast-feeding frequency and breast-milk energy output were determined every 3 mo until 18 mo. Weight loss from 1 to 12 mo postpartum was significantly greater in BF(More)
Anthropometric indexes from 1 to 24 mo were compared between matched cohorts of infants either breast-fed (BF, n = 46) or formula-fed (FF, n = 41) until > or = 12 mo. Neither group received solid foods before 4 mo. Weight-for-length was significantly greater among FF infants from 7 to 24 mo. In both groups, skinfold thickness (triceps, biceps, subscapular,(More)
Estimates of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) by heart-rate (HR) monitoring were compared with those made by the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in nine exclusively breast-feeding women. Subjects recorded HR and dietary intake daily during the 8-d, isotope-measurement period. Milk energy output was determined by 3-d test weighing and analysis of 24-h(More)
Anthropometric data were collected monthly from birth to 18 months as part of the Davis Area Research on Lactation, Infant Nutrition and Growth study, which followed infants who were either breast-fed or formula-fed during the first 12 months. The two cohorts were matched for parental socioeconomic status, education, ethnic group, and anthropometric(More)
We compared growth, dietary intake, and morbidity of infants breast-fed for > or = 12 mo from two populations: Davis, CA (n = 46) and Huascar, Peru (n = 52). When compared against WHO reference data (based primarily on formula-fed infants), Huascar infants appeared to falter as early as 3-4 mo, but when compared with Davis breast-fed infants, the curves for(More)