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Brefeldin A (BFA), a fungal metabolite that blocks transport of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, was found to inhibit poliovirus replication 10(5)- to 10(6)-fold. BFA does not inhibit entry of poliovirus into the cell or translation of viral RNA. Poliovirus RNA synthesis, however, is completely inhibited by BFA. A specific class of(More)
We examined the importance of two interactions between poliovirus and its host cell: the putative association between viral proteins and a rearranged intermediate filament (IF) network and the apparent requirement for functional vesicle budding machinery within the host-cell secretory pathway. Poliovirus capsid proteins appeared to associate with(More)
We have used whole-mount immunofluorescence microscopy of late-stage Xenopus laevis oocytes and early embryos to examine the organization of their cortical cytokeratin systems. In both mature oocytes and early embryos, there is a distinct animal-vegetal polarity in cytokeratin organization. In mature (stage-VI) oocytes, the cytokeratin filaments of the(More)
To study the role of keratin filaments in Xenopus development, fertilized eggs were injected with anti-keratin monoclonal antibodies. The anti-keratin monoclonal antibodies AE1 and AE3 induce abnormal gastrulation; in the most severely affected embryos gastrulation fails completely. In contrast, embryos injected with the anti-keratin antibody 1h5 develop(More)
During meiotic maturation, the cortical cytokeratin filament system of the Xenopus oocyte disappears (Klymkowsky, M. W., and L. A. Maynell. 1989. Dev. Biol. 134:479). Here we demonstrate that this disappearance results from the severing of cytokeratin filaments into a heterogenous population of oligomers, with S- values ranging from 12S and greater.(More)
In Xenopus, one of the most dramatic events during oocyte maturation is the breakdown of the oocyte's asymmetrically organized system of cytokeratin-type intermediate filaments. Following oocyte maturation in vitro, we found that (1) the breakdown of cytokeratin filament organization proceeds in an animal to vegetal direction, (2) cytokeratin filament(More)
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