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Changes in intrinsic optical signals could be related to cell swelling; however, the evidence is not compelling. We measured light transmittance, ECS volume fraction (alpha), and extracellular K+ in rat spinal cord slices during electrical stimulation and the application of elevated potassium, NMDA, or anisoosmotic solutions. Dorsal root stimulation (10(More)
Glutamate release, particularly in pathologic conditions, may result in cellular swelling. The authors studied the effects of glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) on extracellular pH (pH(e)), extracellular potassium concentration ([K(+)](e)), and changes in extracellular space (ECS)(More)
Interactions between separate synaptic inputs converging on the same target appear to contribute to the fine-tuning of information processing in the central nervous system. Intersynaptic crosstalk is made possible by transmitter spillover from the synaptic cleft and its diffusion over a distance to neighboring synapses. This is the case for glutamate, which(More)
Cell swelling and astrogliosis (manifested as an increase in GFAP) were evoked in isolated rat spinal cords of 4-21-day-old rats by incubation in either 50 mM K+ or hypotonic solution (235 mosmol kg(-1)). Application of K+ and hypotonic solution resulted at first in a decrease of extracellular space (ECS) volume fraction alpha (ECS volume/total tissue(More)
To obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying early changes in the brain water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) observed in cerebral ischemia, dynamic changes in the ADC of water and in the energy status were measured at postnatal day 8 or 9 in neonatal rat brains after cardiac arrest using 1H MRS/MRI and 31P MRS, respectively. The time(More)
Tumor cell migration through the extracellular space (ECS) might be affected by its pore size and extracellular matrix molecule content. ECS volume fraction alpha (alpha = ECS volume/total tissue volume), tortuosity lambda (lambda(2) = free/apparent diffusion coefficient) and nonspecific uptake k' were studied by the real-time tetramethylammonium method in(More)
At the nodes of Ranvier, excitable axon membranes are exposed directly to the extracellular fluid. Cations are accumulated and depleted in the local extracellular nodal region during action potential propagation, but the impact of the extranodal micromilieu on signal propagation still remains unclear. Brain-specific hyaluronan-binding link protein, Bral1,(More)
In rat brain and spinal cord slices, the local extracellular accumulation of K(+), as indicated by K(+) tail currents (I(tail)) after a depolarization step, is greater in the vicinity of oligodendrocytes than that of astrocytes. It has been suggested that this may reflect a smaller extracellular space (ECS) around oligodendrocytes compared to astrocytes(More)
Integrative optical imaging was used to show that long-chain synthetic poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] (PHPMA) polymers in a range of molecular weights from 7.8 to 1057 kDa were able to diffuse through the extracellular space in rat neocortical slices. Tortuosity (square root of ratio of diffusion coefficient in aqueous medium to that in brain)(More)