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Presynaptic terminals are specialized for mediating rapid fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) after calcium influx. The regulated trafficking of SVs likely results from a highly organized cytomatrix. How this cytomatrix links SVs, maintains them near the active zones (AZs) of release, and organizes docked SVs at the release sites is not fully understood. To(More)
Electron microscopy allows the analysis of synaptic ultrastructure and its modifications during learning or in pathological conditions. However, conventional electron microscopy uses aldehyde fixatives that alter the morphology of the synapse by changing osmolarity and collapsing its molecular components. We have used high-pressure freezing (HPF) to capture(More)
Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes execute synaptic vesicle (SV) fusion. Vesicle fusion is preceded by an obligatory Munc13-dependent priming process that conveys fusion competence to SVs by facilitating SNARE complex assembly. Ultrastructural studies after chemical fixation indicated that vesicle docking(More)
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) from excitatory synapses carry vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) that fill the vesicles with neurotransmitter. Although the essential function of VGLUTs as glutamate transporters has been well established, the evidence for additional cell-biological functions is more controversial. Both VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 disruptions in mice(More)
In response to calcium influx, synaptic vesicles fuse very rapidly with the plasma membrane to release their neurotransmitter content. An important mechanism for sustained release includes the formation of new vesicles by local endocytosis. How synaptic vesicles are trafficked from the sites of endocytosis to the sites of release and how they are maintained(More)
In response to calcium influx, some of the synaptic vesicles in presynaptic terminals fuse rapidly with the presynaptic membrane, allowing fast synaptic transmission. The regulated recycling of synaptic vesicles at the terminals is required for a sustained release of neurotransmitters. Localization of 'ready to be released' vesicles in close vicinities to(More)
The dense reconstruction of neuronal circuits from volumetric electron microscopy (EM) data has the potential to uncover fundamental structure-function relationships in the brain. To address bottlenecks in the workflow of this emerging methodology, we developed a procedure for conductive sample embedding and a pipeline for neuron reconstruction. We(More)
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