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Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are promising new agents for specific inhibition of malignant cell growth and metastasis formation. Because most of the TKIs have to reach an intracellular target, specific membrane transporters may significantly modulate their effectiveness. In addition, the hydrophobic TKIs may interact with so-called multidrug(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE ABC multidrug transporters (MDR-ABC proteins) cause multiple drug resistance in cancer and may be involved in the decreased anti-cancer efficiency and modified pharmacological properties of novel specifically targeted agents. It has been documented that ABCB1 and ABCG2 interact with several first-generation, small-molecule, tyrosine(More)
Specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are rapidly developing clinical tools applied for the inhibition of malignant cell growth and metastasis formation. Most of these newly developed TKI molecules are hydrophobic, thus rapidly penetrate the cell membranes to reach intracellular targets. However, a large number of tumor cells overexpress multidrug(More)
A number of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases have been implicated in angiogenesis, including epidermal growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, Flk-1/KDR, Flt-1, Tie-1, and Tek/Tie-2. Flk-1/KDR, a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is expressed exclusively in endothelial(More)
Nearly 50% of human malignancies exhibit unregulated RAS-ERK signaling; inhibiting it is a valid strategy for antineoplastic intervention. Upon activation, ERK dimerize, which is essential for ERK extranuclear, but not for nuclear, signaling. Here, we describe a small molecule inhibitor for ERK dimerization that, without affecting ERK phosphorylation,(More)
Protein kinases play important roles in tumor development and progression. A variety of members of this family of signal transduction enzymes serve as targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer. We have identified the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) AXL as a potential mediator of motility and invasivity of breast cancer cells. AXL is expressed in most(More)
Some protein kinases are known to acquire resistance to selective small molecule inhibitors upon mutation of a conserved threonine at the ATP binding site to a larger residue. Here, we performed a comprehensive mutational analysis of this structural element and determined the cellular sensitivities of several disease-relevant tyrosine kinases against(More)
Human ABCG2 is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that provides physiological protection against xenobiotics. ABCG2 also significantly influences biodistribution of drugs through pharmacological tissue barriers and confers multidrug resistance to cancer cells. Moreover, ABCG2 is the molecular determinant of the side population that is characteristically(More)
OBJECTIVE Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive disease arising from remodeling and narrowing of pulmonary arteries (PAs) resulting in high pulmonary blood pressure and ultimately right ventricular failure. Elevated production of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is associated with increased pressure in PH. However, the cellular(More)
Discovering new drugs to treat tuberculosis more efficiently and to overcome multidrug resistance is a world health priority. To find antimycobacterial scaffolds, we screened a kinase inhibitor library of more than 12,000 compounds using an integrated strategy involving whole cell-based assays with Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis,(More)