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Proline accumulates in many plant species in response to environmental stress. Although much is now known about proline metabolism, some aspects of its biological functions are still unclear. Here, we discuss the compartmentalization of proline biosynthesis, accumulation and degradation in the cytosol, chloroplast and mitochondria. We also describe the role(More)
Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase enzymes, which catalyse the rate-limiting step of proline biosynthesis, are encoded by two closely related P5CS genes in Arabidopsis. Transcription of the P5CS genes is differentially regulated by drought, salinity and abscisic acid, suggesting that these genes play specific roles in the control of proline(More)
Proline is a common compatible osmolyte in higher plants. Proline accumulation in response to water stress and salinity is preceded by a rapid increase of the mRNA level of delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) controlling the rate-limiting step of glutamate-derived proline biosynthesis. P5CS is encoded by two differentially regulated genes in(More)
Mutation of the PRL1 gene, encoding a regulatory WD protein, results in glucose hypersensitivity and derepression of glucose-regulated genes in Arabidopsis. The yeast SNF1 protein kinase, a key regulator of glucose signaling, and Arabidopsis SNF1 homologs AKIN10 and AKIN11, which can complement the Deltasnf1 mutation, were found to interact with an(More)
A protocol for establishment and high-frequency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of morphogenic Arabidopsis cell suspensions was developed to facilitate saturation mutagenesis and identification of plant genes by sequenced T-DNA tags. Thirty-two self-circularized T-DNA tagged chromosomal loci were isolated from 21 transgenic plants by plasmid rescue(More)
Induction of knockout mutations by T-DNA insertion mutagenesis is widely used in studies of plant gene functions. To assess the efficiency of this genetic approach, we have sequenced PCR amplified junctions of 1000 T-DNA insertions and analysed their distribution in the Arabidopsis genome. Map positions of 973 tags could be determined unequivocally,(More)
Accumulation of free L-proline (Pro) is a typical stress response incited by osmotic injuries in plants and microorganisms. Although the protective role of Pro in osmotic stress is not well understood, it is thought to function as compatible osmolyte or as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we show that, in Arabidopsis thaliana, Pro(More)
An efficient and reproducible plant regeneration system, initiated in somatic tissues, has been devised for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Somatic embryogenesis has been induced from shoot tips and immature leaves of in vitro shoot cultures of 15 cassava genotypes. Somatic embryos developed directly on the explants when cultured on a medium containing(More)
Expression of the Sesbania rostrata leghemoglobin glb3 gene was analyzed in transgenic Lotus corniculatus and tobacco plants harboring chimeric glb3-uidA (gus) gene fusions to identify cis-acting elements involved in nodule-specific gene expression and general transcriptional control. A 1.9-kilobase fragment of the glb3 5'-upstream region was found to(More)
Serine/threonine-specific phosphoprotein phosphatases (PPPs) are ubiquitous enzymes in all eukaryotes, but their regulatory functions are largely unknown in higher plants. The Arabidopsis genome encodes 26 PPP catalytic subunits related to type 1, type 2A and so-called novel phosphatases, including four plant-specific enzymes carrying large N-terminal(More)