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1764 This Journal feature begins with a case vignette highlighting a common clinical problem. Evidence supporting various strategies is then presented, followed by a review of formal guidelines, when they exist. The article ends with the author's clinical recommendations. A 42-year-old woman presents with a palpable mass on the left side of her neck. She(More)
BACKGROUND Phthalates are widely used chemicals, and human exposure is extensive. Recent studies have indicated that phthalates may have thyroid-disrupting properties. OBJECTIVE We aimed to assess concentrations of phthalate metabolites in urine samples from Danish children and to investigate the associations with thyroid function, insulin-like growth(More)
Graves' disease (GD) is a common autoimmune disease (AID) that shares many of its susceptibility loci with other AIDs. The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) represents the primary autoantigen in GD, in which autoantibodies bind to the receptor and mimic its ligand, thyroid stimulating hormone, causing the characteristic clinical phenotype.(More)
We consider stateless counter machines which mix the features of one-head counter machines and a special type of two-head Watson-Crick automata (WK-automata). Our biologically motivated machines have heads that read the input starting from the two extremes. The reading process is finished when there are no more symbols between the heads. Depending on(More)
Thyroid function was investigated in 100 manic-depressive patients. Goiter was more common in patients treated with lithium for 1-5 years (44%) or more than 10 years (50%) than in patients who never received lithium (16%). Smoking contributed significantly to thyroid size and goiter. In nonsmoking patients, ultrasonically determined thyroid volume was(More)
BACKGROUND Hyperthyroidism has been linked with different morbidities, like atrial fibrillation, stroke and diabetes mellitus. However, our knowledge regarding the extent and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and other diseases is fragmented. Here, we aimed at evaluating various morbidities before and after the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. (More)
BACKGROUND Patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis have impaired health-related quality of life. The thyroid gland has a high selenium concentration, and specific selenoprotein enzyme families are crucial to immune function, and catalyze thyroid hormone metabolism and redox processes in thyroid cells. Previous randomized controlled trials have found(More)
BACKGROUND Hypothyroidism has been linked with an increased risk of other morbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. However, the temporal relationship between these diseases and the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not well illuminated. Such information may provide insight into causal relationships between hypothyroidism and other(More)
Serum thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (T4), and free triiodothyronine (T3) levels illustrate the thyroid function set point, but the interrelations between these have never been characterized in detail. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between TSH and thyroid hormone levels in healthy euthyroid twins and to determine the extent to(More)