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The intrathecal administration of p38 MAP kinase (p38) inhibitor has been shown to reduce hyperalgesia. In the present study, we investigated the activation of p38 in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord following peripheral tissue inflammation and nerve injury immunohistochemically. Peripheral inflammation and chronic constriction injury(More)
Peripheral nerve injury leading to neuropathic pain induces the upregulation of interleukin (IL)-6 and microglial CX3CR1 expression, and activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the spinal cord. Here, we investigated whether IL-6 regulates CX3CR1 expression through p38 MAPK activation in the spinal cord in rats with chronic constriction(More)
Proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 have been found to play a key role in the propagation of persistent pain states. We investigated the temporal expressions of the mRNAs and the receptor mRNAs of TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 in rat dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord in a chronic constriction(More)
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a major contributor to the elevation of spinal prostaglandin E2, which augments the processing of nociceptive stimuli following peripheral inflammation, and dynorphin has been shown to have an important role in acute and chronic pain states. Moreover, the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), regulates the(More)
Neurodevelopmental disorders include a wide range of diseases such as autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation. Mutations in several genes that regulate neural development and synapse function have been identified in neurodevelopmental disorders. Interestingly, some affected genes and pathways in these diseases are associated with the autophagy(More)
A corroborative study was conducted on the maize quality properties of test weight, pycnometer density, tangential abrasive dehulling device (TADD), time-to-grind on the Stenvert hardness tester (SHT), 100-kernel weight, kernel size distribution, and proximate composition as well as maize dry- and wet-millability by six participating laboratories. Suggested(More)
In this study, we evaluated the expression of MCP-1 in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord following axotomy and chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve and L5 spinal nerve ligation (L5 SNL) using an immunohistochemical approach. MCP-1 expression in the DRG peaked and declined before the full onset of pain hypersensitivity(More)
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 is a member of the CC chemokine family that exhibits potent chemotactic activity for monocytes/macrophages. In the current study, the proportion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats was shown to increase markedly following adjuvant(More)
BACKGROUND Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive weakness of the respiratory and limb muscles. Consequently, most patients with ALS exhibit progressive hypoventilation, which worsens during sleep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between nocturnal hypoxia and cognitive dysfunction(More)
This paper presents a new micro assembly system, which is composed of a micro gripper, a micro remote center compliance (RCC) unit, a voice coil motor-driving mechanism and precision motion stages. The micro gripper is actuated by two shape memory alloy (SMA) wires, and its grip is 1 mm. The micro RCC unit has low translational and rotational stiffness(More)