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OBJECTIVE Bone destruction is a critical pathology involved in the functional disability caused by rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Osteoclasts, which are specialized bone-resorbing cells regulated by cytokines such as RANKL, are implicated in bone destruction in RA. The aim of this study was to determine whether interleukin-21 (IL-21), a potent immunomodulatory(More)
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a rare, but potentially life-threatening complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A bone marrow biopsy often provides pathologic evidence of MAS, and MAS usually responds to corticosteroids alone or with the addition of cyclosporine A. We describe a case of MAS developing in a pregnant patient with SLE, who(More)
This study aimed at analysing the content of 22 minor and trace elements in milk and yogurts from South Korea, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after digestion using heating block. The analytical method was validated by detection limits, precision, accuracy and recovery experiments, obtaining satisfactory results in all cases.(More)
This study analysed the level of contamination of harmful heavy metals in 3820 food samples available in Korea in 2010. A total of 119 types of samples were collected, including corns, vegetables, fruits, fishes, mollusks, shellfish, crustaceans, seaweed, bean products, meats and eggs from seven major cities. These samples were analysed using ICP-MS after(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations of genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms 2D6, 3A5, and 3A4 with blood concentrations of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and its metabolite, N-desethyl HCQ (DHCQ), in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS SLE patients taking HCQ for >3 months were recruited and were genotyped for 4(More)
Osteoclastogenesis plays an important role in joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-15 is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that appears to help mediate the pathological bone loss. This study was undertaken to explore the signaling molecules essential for osteoclastogenesis mediated by IL-15 in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. Expression(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether serum trace metals are related to abnormal cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS We studied serum lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and arsenic(As) in 89 patients with AD and in 118 cognitively normal individuals. We analyzed the results of the blood tests and the food intake. RESULTS Serum Pb levels(More)
Interleukin (IL)-27 is a heterodimeric cytokine that is known to have both stimulatory and inhibitory functions during immune responses. We investigated the effects of IL-27 on arthritis and bone erosion in the murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. We demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of IL-27 on osteoclastogenesis is associated with(More)
— For efficient code sharing among users, a wireless medium access control (MAC) protocol for CDMA networks is proposed, which supports connection-oriented, as well as connec-tionless, services and provides the various bit rates needed for the integrated multimedia services. The proposed MAC protocol allows mobile terminals to use multiple slots and(More)
Methylmercury is well known for causing adverse health effects in the brain and nervous system. Estimating the elimination constant derived from the biological half-life of methylmercury in the blood or hair is an important part of calculating guidelines for methylmercury intake. Thus, this study was conducted to estimate the biological half-life of(More)