Kyung-Nam Kim

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Calcium plays a pivotal role in plant responses to several stimuli, including pathogens, abiotic stresses, and hormones. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying calcium functions are poorly understood. It is hypothesized that calcium serves as second messenger and, in many cases, requires intracellular protein sensors to transduce the signal further(More)
Plants respond to environmental stress by activating "stress genes." The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in stress-responsive gene expression. Although Ca(2+) serves as a common second messenger in signaling stress and ABA, little is known about the molecular basis of Ca(2+) action in these pathways. Here, we show that CIPK3, a(More)
Although calcium is a critical component in the signal transduction pathways that lead to stress gene expression in higher plants, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying calcium function. It is believed that cellular calcium changes are perceived by sensor molecules, including calcium binding proteins. The calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein(More)
Eye-gaze is an input mode which has the potential of an efficient computer interface. Eye movement has been the focus of research in this area. Non-intrusive eyegaze tracking that allows slight head movement is addressed in this paper. A small 2D mark is employed as a reference to compensate for this movement. The iris center has been chosen for purposes of(More)
Two starch branching enzyme (SBE) cDNAs were identified in an Arabidopsis seedling hypocotyl library using maize Sbe1 and Sbe2 cDNAs as probes. The two cDNAs have diverged 5′ and 3′ ends, but encode proteins which share 90% identity over an extensive region with 70% identity to maize SBE IIb [12]. Genomic Southern blots suggest that the two cDNAs are the(More)
Starch-branching enzymes (SBE) alter starch structure by breaking an α-1,4 linkage and attaching the reducing end of the new chain to a glucan chain by an α1,6 bond. In maize, three isoforms of SBE have been identified. In order to examine the function of the SBEI isoform, a reverse-genetics PCR-based screen was used to identify a mutant line segregating(More)
The E8 gene is expressed at a high level during fruit ripening, and is transcriptionally activated by ethylene. We have identified a 428 bp fragment of the E8 5'-flanking region, from -1528 to -1100, that makes a minimal 35S promoter responsive to ethylene. This fragment confers ethylene-responsiveness only in the 5';-to-3'; orientation; in the reverse(More)
We have isolated a cold-inducible gene (designated OsCK1) from Oryza sativa by a differential cDNA screening technique. Sequence analysis indicated that the open reading frame of the OsCK1 gene consists of 1350 bp encoding 449 amino acid residues, which is very similar to a family of calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) or(More)
Expression of the maize (Zea mays L.) starch branching enzyme (SBE) genes Sbe1 and Sbe2 were characterized during kernel development and in vegetative tissues. The onset of Sbe1 and Sbe2 expression during endosperm development was similar to that of other genes involved in starch biosynthesis (Wx, Sh2 and Bt2). However, the expression of Sbe2 peaked earlier(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade(s) is important for plant defense/stress responses. Though MAPKs have been identified and characterized in rice (Oryza sativa L.), a monocot cereal crop research model, the first upstream component of the kinase cascade, namely MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK) has not yet been identified. Here we report the cloning(More)