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The intrathecal administration of p38 MAP kinase (p38) inhibitor has been shown to reduce hyperalgesia. In the present study, we investigated the activation of p38 in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord following peripheral tissue inflammation and nerve injury immunohistochemically. Peripheral inflammation and chronic constriction injury(More)
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a major contributor to the elevation of spinal prostaglandin E2, which augments the processing of nociceptive stimuli following peripheral inflammation, and dynorphin has been shown to have an important role in acute and chronic pain states. Moreover, the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), regulates the(More)
Peripheral nerve injury resulting in neuropathic pain induces the upregulation of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which binds to tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and induces NF-kappaB and p38 MAPK activation in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We here investigated whether TNFR1 regulates IL-6 expression through(More)
Peripheral nerve injury leading to neuropathic pain induces the upregulation of interleukin (IL)-6 and microglial CX3CR1 expression, and activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the spinal cord. Here, we investigated whether IL-6 regulates CX3CR1 expression through p38 MAPK activation in the spinal cord in rats with chronic constriction(More)
Proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 have been found to play a key role in the propagation of persistent pain states. We investigated the temporal expressions of the mRNAs and the receptor mRNAs of TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 in rat dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord in a chronic constriction(More)
Neurodevelopmental disorders include a wide range of diseases such as autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation. Mutations in several genes that regulate neural development and synapse function have been identified in neurodevelopmental disorders. Interestingly, some affected genes and pathways in these diseases are associated with the autophagy(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate maxillary and mandibular alveolar and basal bone widths using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to verify the correlation between CBCT images and posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms. MATERIALS AND METHODS The CBCT scans and PA cephalograms were obtained from 20 men (age range  =  24.0-29.1 years; mean age  =  27.2 years; SD  =(More)
A corroborative study was conducted on the maize quality properties of test weight, pycnometer density, tangential abrasive dehulling device (TADD), time-to-grind on the Stenvert hardness tester (SHT), 100-kernel weight, kernel size distribution, and proximate composition as well as maize dry- and wet-millability by six participating laboratories. Suggested(More)
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 is a member of the CC chemokine family that exhibits potent chemotactic activity for monocytes/macrophages. In the current study, the proportion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats was shown to increase markedly following adjuvant(More)
A highly efficient cellobiohydrolase (CBH)-secreting basidiomycetous fungus, Agaricus arvensis KMJ623, was isolated and identified based on its morphological features and sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer rDNA. An extracellular CBH was purified to homogeneity from A. arvencis culture supernatant using sequential chromatography. The relative(More)