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We report an improved draft nucleotide sequence of the 2.3-gigabase genome of maize, an important crop plant and model for biological research. Over 32,000 genes were predicted, of which 99.8% were placed on reference chromosomes. Nearly 85% of the genome is composed of hundreds of families of transposable elements, dispersed nonuniformly across the genome.(More)
The adult human intestine contains trillions of bacteria, representing hundreds of species and thousands of subspecies. Little is known about the selective pressures that have shaped and are shaping this community's component species, which are dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes divisions. To examine how the intestinal environment(More)
  • Ladeana W Hillier, Tina A Graves, Robert S Fulton, Lucinda A Fulton, Kymberlie H Pepin, Patrick Minx +116 others
  • 2005
Human chromosome 2 is unique to the human lineage in being the product of a head-to-head fusion of two intermediate-sized ancestral chromosomes. Chromosome 4 has received attention primarily related to the search for the Huntington's disease gene, but also for genes associated with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, polycystic kidney disease and a form of muscular(More)
[Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the correlation between the activities of daily living and the quality of life (QOL) of patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 68 patients with stroke. Three questionnaires were distributed by visiting the subjects. [Results] All the items and total scores of the functional(More)
The diversity of dog breeds make the domestic dog a valuable model for identifying genes responsible for many phenotypic and behavioral traits. The brain, in particular, is a region of interest for the analysis of molecular changes that are involved in dog-specific behavioral phenotypes. However, such studies are handicapped due to incomplete annotation of(More)
DNA methylation (DNAm) levels can be used to predict the chronological age of tissues; however, the characteristics of DNAm age signatures in normal and cancer tissues are not well studied using multiple studies. We studied approximately 4000 normal and cancer samples with multiple tissue types from diverse studies, and using linear and nonlinear regression(More)
Sequencing depth, which is directly related to the cost and time required for the generation, processing, and maintenance of next-generation sequencing data, is an important factor in the practical utilization of such data in clinical fields. Unfortunately, identifying an exome sequencing depth adequate for clinical use is a challenge that has not been(More)
BACKGROUND It is necessary to analyze the kinematic properties of a paralyzed extremity to quantitatively determine the degree of impairment of hemiplegic people during functional activities of daily living (ADL) such as a drinking task. This study aimed to identify the kinematic differences between 16 hemiplegic and 32 able-bodied participants in relation(More)
Protein location and function can change dynamically depending on many factors, including environmental stress, disease state, age, developmental stage, and cell type. Here, we describe an integrative computational framework, called the conditional function predictor (CoFP; http://nbm.ajou.ac.kr/cofp/), for predicting changes in subcellular location and(More)
Microglia and macrophages play an important role in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Although the resident location of these cells is different, their functions during the polarization response due to various stimuli are very similar. The present study aimed to analyze differences in microglial and macrophage gene expression during inflammation.(More)