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Cognitive radio (CR) has emerged as one of effective methods to enhance the utilization of existing radio spectrum. Main principle of CR is that secondary users (SUs) are allowed to use the spectrum unused by primary users (PUs) without interfering PU's transmissions. In this paper, PUs operate on a slot-by-slot basis and SUs try to exploit the slots unused(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have reported the preventive effects of probiotics on obesity. Among commensal bacteria, bifidobacteria is one of the most numerous probiotics in the mammalian gut and are a type of lactic acid bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the antiobesity and lipid-lowering effects of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy(More)
Cognitive radio has emerged as one of effective methods to enhance utilization of radio spectrum. Main principle of cognitive radio is that the secondary users (SUs) are allowed to use the spectrum not used by primary users (PUs) without interfering PU's transmission. In this paper, we consider network system where PUs use channels under super-slot time(More)
We analyze the MAC performance of the IEEE 802.15.4 LR-WPAN non-beacon mode with the piggyback method in non-saturated condition. Our approach is to model a stochastic behavior of one device as a discrete time Markov chain. We propose an analytical model describing the download behavior of a device using piggyback method. We obtain the performance measures(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic low grade inflammation is closely linked to type II diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Macrophages play a key role in the regulation of pro- or anti-inflammatory actions at the lesion sites of disease. Components of cordyceps militaris, cordycepin and adenosine, have been used for the modulation of inflammatory diseases. The effects(More)
Lymphocytes are the central mediators of the immune response, requiring cytokines for survival and proliferation. Survival signaling targets the Bcl-2 family of apoptotic mediators, however, the pathway for the cytokine-driven proliferation of lymphocytes is poorly understood. Here we show that cytokine-induced cell cycle progression is not solely dependent(More)
BACKGROUND It has been recently noticed that type 2 diabetes (T2D), one of the most common metabolic diseases, causes a chronic low-grade inflammation and activation of the innate immune system that are closely involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. Cordyceps militaris, a traditional medicinal mushroom, produces a component compound, cordycepin(More)