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In (distributed) denial of service attack ((D)DoS), attackers send a huge number of packets with spoofed source addresses to disguise themselves toward a target host or network Various IP traceback techniques such as link testing, marking, and logging to find out the real source of attacking packets have been proposed. We present a marking scheme (with(More)
BACKGROUND The effects of probiotics on the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) are inconclusive. OBJECTIVE To determine the clinical effect of probiotics in the management of AD overall and in different age groups. METHODS A comprehensive search of databases through December 2013 was performed. For this meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials(More)
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have specific physico-chemical and electrical properties that are useful for telecommunications, medicine, materials, manufacturing processes and the environmental and energy sectors. Yet, despite their many advantages, it is also important to determine whether CNTs may represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Like(More)
E-cadherin is a key cell adhesion molecule implicated as a tumor suppressor, which is frequently altered in hepatocellular carcinoma, especially in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related tumors. Here, we report that HBV X protein (HBx) represses E-cadherin expression at the transcription level. Based on the differential effects of HBx natural variants, we(More)
The acute inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 218 g (males) and 153 g (females), were divided into four groups (five rats in each group): fresh-air control, low-dose (0.94 × 10(6) particle/cm(3), 76 µg/m(3)), middle-dose (1.64 × 10(6) particle/ cm(3), 135 µg/m( 3)), and(More)
Vertebrate fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase exists as three isozymes (A, B, and C) that demonstrate kinetic properties that are consistent with their physiological role and tissue-specific expression. The isozymes demonstrate specific substrate cleavage efficiencies along with differences in the ability to interact with other proteins; however, it is(More)
Enzymes that utilize a Schiff-base intermediate formed with their substrates and that share the same alpha/beta barrel fold comprise a mechanistically diverse superfamily defined in the SCOPS database as the class I aldolase family. The family includes the "classical" aldolases fructose-1,6-(bis)phosphate (FBP) aldolase, transaldolase, and(More)
The contamination status of twelve persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on the Stockholm convention in the surface sediments of Han river, which is one of the largest river in the South Korea were investigated. Five organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, mirex, and SigmaCHLs (alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, cis-nonachlor,(More)
Dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) is composed of two globular domains separated by a 10-residue linker. The N-terminal domain participates in the synthesis of a mRNA cap 1 structure ((7Me)GpppA(2'OMe)) at the 5' end of the viral genome and possesses guanylyltransferase, guanine-N7-methyltransferase, and nucleoside-2'O-methyltransferase(More)
Enrichment of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) from the mammalian adult testis faces several limitations owing to their relatively low numbers among many types of advanced germ cells and somatic cells. The aim of the present study was to improve the isolation efficiency of SSCs using a simple tissue grafting method to eliminate the existing advanced germ(More)