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The nature of entrainment between cardiac and locomotor rhythms was investigated while normal human subjects walked or ran on a treadmill. To detect the incidence of entrainment occurrence, the phase relationships among cardiac, respiratory, and locomotor rhythms were analyzed. The phase relationship between heartbeats and gait signals showed that(More)
During exercise, pulse oximetry is problematic due to motion artifact and altered digital perfusion. New pulse oximeter technology addresses these issues and may offer improved performance. We simultaneously compared Nellcor N-395 (Oxismart XLTM) pulse oximeters with an RS-10 forehead sensor (RS-10), a D-25 digit sensor (D-25), and the Ivy 2000 (Masimo(More)
Cardiac output was determined by impedance cardiography (Q(imp)) and a rebreathing method (Q(reb)) during exercise of loads up to 90 W. The correlation between Q(imp) and Q(reb) was generally good, but it was found in two of four subjects that Q(imp) was slightly lower than Q(reb) at the higher exercise levels. The regression equation for both Q values was:(More)
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been widely used as a measure of the cardiac vagal control in response to stress. However, RSA seems not to be a generalized indicator because of its dependency on respiratory parameter and individual variations of RSA amplitude (A(RSA)). We hypothesized that phase-lag variations between RSA and respiration may serve(More)
To determine the effects of muscle pump function on cardiac autonomic activity in response to quiet standing, we simulated the muscle pump effect by rhythmic lower-leg cuff inflation (RCI) with four cuff pressures of 0 (sham), 40, 80, and 120 mmHg at 5 cycles/min. The R-R interval (RRI) and beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) were acquired in healthy subjects(More)
A method is proposed for visualizing the depth and thickness distribution of a local blood region in skin tissue using diffuse reflectance images at three isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin: 420, 585, and 800 nm. Monte Carlo simulation of light transport specifies a relation among optical densities, depth, and thickness of the region under given(More)
A method is proposed for visualizing simply the concentrations of melanin, oxygenated blood, and deoxygenated blood in skin tissue using digital RGB images. The total blood concentration and oxygen saturation can also be reconstructed. Monte Carlo simulation of light transport specifies a relation between the chromophore concentrations and Commission(More)
Acute hypoxia increases heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (Qt) at a given oxygen consumption (VO2) during submaximal exercise. It is widely believed that the underlying mechanism involves increased sympathetic activation and circulating catecholamines acting on cardiac beta receptors. Recent evidence indicating a continued role for parasympathetic(More)
A new indirect method for measuring the arteriovenous O2 content difference (avDO2) was developed. The avDO2 was calculated by dividing the gradient of the CO2 dissociation curve by that of a gas exchange ratio against PCO2. The latter slope was obtained from O2 and CO2 concentrations in rebreathing air. The validity of the method was tested preliminarily(More)
In order to visualize human skin hemodynamics, we investigated a method that is specifically developed for the visualization of concentrations of oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood, and melanin in skin tissue from digital RGB color images. Images of total blood concentration and oxygen saturation can also be reconstructed from the results of oxygenated(More)