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The nature of entrainment between cardiac and locomotor rhythms was investigated while normal human subjects walked or ran on a treadmill. To detect the incidence of entrainment occurrence, the phase relationships among cardiac, respiratory, and locomotor rhythms were analyzed. The phase relationship between heartbeats and gait signals showed that(More)
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been widely used as a measure of the cardiac vagal control in response to stress. However, RSA seems not to be a generalized indicator because of its dependency on respiratory parameter and individual variations of RSA amplitude (A(RSA)). We hypothesized that phase-lag variations between RSA and respiration may serve(More)
A new indirect method for measuring the arteriovenous O2 content difference (avDO2) was developed. The avDO2 was calculated by dividing the gradient of the CO2 dissociation curve by that of a gas exchange ratio against PCO2. The latter slope was obtained from O2 and CO2 concentrations in rebreathing air. The validity of the method was tested preliminarily(More)
A multi-spectral diffuse reflectance imaging method based on a single snap shot of Red-Green-Blue images acquired with the exposure time of 65 ms (15 fps) was investigated for estimating melanin concentration, blood concentration, and oxygen saturation in human skin tissue. The technique utilizes the Wiener estimation method to deduce spectral reflectance(More)
An unconstrained respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) monitoring system to be used during sleeping is proposed. The system consisted of eight polyvinylidene fluoride cable sensors, charge amplifiers and measuring software, together with an analogue-to-digital converter unit. The cable sensors were horizontally embedded into a textile sheet on a bed(More)
When mixed venous blood is oxygenated in alveolar air with higher PCO2, the PCO2 within the red cell is though to exceed the alveolar PCO2 due to the Haldane effect and to block the inward CO2 diffusion. If the direction of the CO2 diffusion is not reversed during the contact time, the HCO2-gain in the plasma will not exceed the amount estimated from(More)
Interactions are described of central origin between respiratory, cardiac and stepping rhythms during fictive locomotion in paralyzed, vagotomized, and decerebrated cats. Fictive locomotion was induced by tonic electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR). The coherence between heart beat fluctuation, the efferent discharges of the(More)
Interactions between locomotor, respiratory, and cardiac rhythms were investigated in human subjects (n = 11) walking on a treadmill. Investigation of the phase relationship between heart rate and gait signals revealed that cardiac rhythms were entrained to locomotor rhythms when both frequencies were close to an integer ratio. Coherence spectra were(More)
To determine the effects of muscle pump function on cardiac autonomic activity in response to quiet standing, we simulated the muscle pump effect by rhythmic lower-leg cuff inflation (RCI) with four cuff pressures of 0 (sham), 40, 80, and 120 mmHg at 5 cycles/min. The R-R interval (RRI) and beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) were acquired in healthy subjects(More)
After acclimatization to high altitude, maximal exercise cardiac output (QT) is reduced. Possible contributing factors include 1) blood volume depletion, 2) increased blood viscosity, 3) myocardial hypoxia, 4) altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) function affecting maximal heart rate (HR), and 5) reduced flow demand from reduced muscle work capability. We(More)