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The nature of entrainment between cardiac and locomotor rhythms was investigated while normal human subjects walked or ran on a treadmill. To detect the incidence of entrainment occurrence, the phase relationships among cardiac, respiratory, and locomotor rhythms were analyzed. The phase relationship between heartbeats and gait signals showed that(More)
Cardiac output was determined by impedance cardiography (Q(imp)) and a rebreathing method (Q(reb)) during exercise of loads up to 90 W. The correlation between Q(imp) and Q(reb) was generally good, but it was found in two of four subjects that Q(imp) was slightly lower than Q(reb) at the higher exercise levels. The regression equation for both Q values was:(More)
During exercise, pulse oximetry is problematic due to motion artifact and altered digital perfusion. New pulse oximeter technology addresses these issues and may offer improved performance. We simultaneously compared Nellcor N-395 (Oxismart XLTM) pulse oximeters with an RS-10 forehead sensor (RS-10), a D-25 digit sensor (D-25), and the Ivy 2000 (Masimo(More)
Interactions are described of central origin between respiratory, cardiac and stepping rhythms during fictive locomotion in paralyzed, vagotomized, and decerebrated cats. Fictive locomotion was induced by tonic electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR). The coherence between heart beat fluctuation, the efferent discharges of the(More)
The influence of cardiac phase on the response of the cardiac pacemaker to dynamic hand contraction in eight healthy young men was studied to determine whether heart rate response to muscle contraction varied as a function of timing within the cardiac cycle. Changes in R-R interval (RRI) in response to muscle contraction were measured at various cardiac(More)
Fictive locomotion was evoked by stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) in immobilized, vagotomized and decerebrate cats. The coherence between heart beat fluctuation and efferent discharges of the hindlimb nerve was used to evaluate the strength of the coupling between the cardiac and locomotor rhythms during MLR-elicited fictive(More)
Interactions between locomotor, respiratory, and cardiac rhythms were investigated in human subjects (n = 11) walking on a treadmill. Investigation of the phase relationship between heart rate and gait signals revealed that cardiac rhythms were entrained to locomotor rhythms when both frequencies were close to an integer ratio. Coherence spectra were(More)
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been widely used as a measure of the cardiac vagal control in response to stress. However, RSA seems not to be a generalized indicator because of its dependency on respiratory parameter and individual variations of RSA amplitude (A(RSA)). We hypothesized that phase-lag variations between RSA and respiration may serve(More)
Optison is a contrast-enhancing agent used in myocardial contrast echocardiography. It consists of small albumin spherules (approximately 4-microm diameter) containing a fluorocarbon gas, octafluoropropane. It is injected IV and, thus, may cause pulmonary manifestations of microembolism. To determine if any such effects do occur, we injected sequential(More)
Acute hypoxia increases heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (Qt) at a given oxygen consumption (VO2) during submaximal exercise. It is widely believed that the underlying mechanism involves increased sympathetic activation and circulating catecholamines acting on cardiac beta receptors. Recent evidence indicating a continued role for parasympathetic(More)