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Energy efficiency is a critical factor for operation of a wireless sensor network. In general, wireless sensor networks perform clustering and routing using localized neighbor information and simple rules only. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient clustering and routing method for wireless sensor networks by exploiting energy state information of(More)
The use of silver nanoparticles is one of the fastest growing product categories in the nanotechnology industry, with a focus on antimicrobial activity. However, thus far, toxicity data for silver nanoparticles are limited. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and the pathway by which they affect A549 lung(More)
Ambient air pollution (AAP) and particulate matters (PM) have been closely associated with adverse health effects such as respiratory disease and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to AAP and outdoor PM on respiratory disease. However, the effect of PM size (PM2.5(More)
BACKGROUND Over a few months in the spring of 2011, a cluster of patients with severe respiratory distress were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU). Household clustering was also observed. Extensive laboratory investigations failed to detect an infectious cause. METHODS Clinical, radiological and pathological investigations were conducted and the(More)
The inhibitor of differentiation (Id) family of genes, which encodes negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, has been implicated in diverse cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and migration. However, the specific role of Id1 in titanium dioxide (TiO2)-induced lung injury has not been(More)
Many in the welding industry suffer from bronchitis, lung function changes, metal fume fever, and diseases related to respiratory damage. These phenomena are associated with welding fumes; however, the mechanism behind these findings remains to be elucidated. In this study, the lungs of cynomolgus monkeys were exposed to MMA-SS welding fumes for 229 days(More)
Polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate (PHMG-P) has been widely used as a disinfectant because of its strong bactericidal activity and low toxicity. However, in 2011, the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Ministry of Health and Welfare reported that a suspicious outbreak of pulmonary disease might have originated from humidifier(More)
BACKGROUND In April 2011 a tertiary hospital in Seoul, Korea reported several cases of severe respiratory distress of unknown origin in young adults. METHODS To find the route of transmission, causative agent and patient risk factors of the outbreak, an investigation of the epidemic was initiated. Clinicopathological conferences led to the suspicion that(More)
Amiodarone, bi-iodinated benzofuran derivative, is one of the most frequently prescribed and efficacious antiarrhythmic drugs. Despite its low incidence, amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity is of great concern and the leading cause of discontinuation. Autophagy is an essential homeostatic process that mediates continuous recycling of intracellular(More)