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Recent studies have suggested the involvement of Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3 beta) in pathogenesis and treatment target of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, which led to consider GSK-3 beta as one of the candidate genes for those disorders. However, the association analysis between GSK-3 beta and either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder is yet(More)
OBJECTIVE Inadequate response to clozapine poses a substantial problem in the pharmaco-therapy of refractory schizophrenia. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole augmentation in clozapine-treated patients with refractory schizophrenia. METHOD Patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia who had a(More)
The neurodevelopmental hypothesis offers a promising approach through which to explore the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Human Frizzled-3 protein is one of the major components of the Wnt signaling pathway and plays a crucial role in regulating early neurodevelopmental processes. Therefore, the human Frizzled homolog 3 (FZD3) gene, which encodes this(More)
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate metabolism, plays an important role in DNA methylation. It has been suggested that abnormal DNA methylation contributes to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and congenital anomalies. The previous findings regarding the genetic relationship between MTHFR and schizophrenia are(More)
OBJECTIVE CHRNA7 has been shown to be a strong candidate gene for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. It is located on chromosome 15q13-q14, which is one of the replicated linkage spots for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. METHODS We conducted an association study to determine whether previous positive association is replicable in the Korean(More)
The dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) gene resides at chromosome location 12q22-23, which is one of the candidate loci for susceptibility to bipolar disorder and which encodes a phosphatase selective for extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Previously, we reported a positive association between the functional Leu114Val polymorphism (rs2279574)(More)
OBJECTIVE Currently, there are a few biological markers to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of depression. However, it is not sufficient for diagnosis. We attempted to identify differentially expressed proteins during depressive moods as putative diagnostic biomarkers by using quantitative proteomic analysis of serum. METHODS Blood samples were(More)
A significant overlap between childhood mood disorders and many aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been established. High rates of co-occurrence, familial aggregation, and more severe clinical manifestations of the illnesses when they are comorbid suggest that common genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the(More)
Urinary incontinence and enuresis are well-known side effects of clozapine. However, clinical experience has shown that patients also suffer from diverse lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The natural course of clozapine-related LUTS is unclear. Thus, a longitudinal follow-up study is needed. A total of 101 subjects who were taking clozapine initially(More)
Genes associated with circadian rhythms have been suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 3'-flanking region of CLOCK (3111T/C; rs1801260) has been reported to be associated with sleep disturbances and an increased recurrence rate in patients with bipolar disorder. We(More)