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Activation of microglia cells in the brain contributes to neurodegenerative processes promoted by many neurotoxic factors such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) actively affect microglia-associated neurodegenerative diseases through their role as pro-inflammatory molecules and modulators of pro-inflammatory(More)
NADPH is an essential cofactor for many enzymatic reactions including glutathione metabolism and fat and cholesterol biosynthesis. We have reported recently an important role for mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in cellular defense against oxidative damage by providing NADPH needed for the regeneration of reduced glutathione.(More)
The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine organ. Development, maintenance, and regression of CL are effectively controlled by dynamic changes in gene expression. However, it is unknown what types of gene are affected during the CL life span of the estrous cycle in bovine. Here, we determined whether unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling via(More)
Gangliosides have been suggested to play important roles in various functions such as adhesion, cell differentiation, growth control, and signaling. Mouse follicular development, ovulation, and luteinization during the estrous cycle are regulated by several hormones and cell-cell interactions. In addition, spermatogenesis in seminiferous tubules of adult(More)
The accumulation of iron in neurons has been proposed to contribute to the pathology of numerous neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, insufficient research has been conducted on the precise mechanism underlying iron toxicity in neurons. In this study, we investigated mitochondrial dynamics in hippocampal(More)
Mammals differ more than 100-fold in maximum lifespan, which can be altered in either direction during evolution, but the molecular basis for natural changes in longevity is not understood. Divergent evolution of mammals also led to extensive changes in gene expression within and between lineages. To understand the relationship between lifespan and(More)
Caveolin is the principal protein of caveolae and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. To investigate whether changed expression of caveolins has a pivotal role in focal cerebral ischemia, we induced middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-reperfusion and examined expression of caveolins, inflammatory activation markers, and(More)
Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) gamma1 in the pig genome have the potential to act as harmful factors in xenotransplantation (pig-to-human). Long terminal repeats (LTRs) are known to be strong promoter elements that could control the transcription activity of PERV elements and the adjacent functional genes. To investigate the transcribed PERV gamma1(More)
We reported previously that the intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (icv-STZ)-treated cynomolgus monkey showed regionally specific glucose hypometabolism in FDG-PET imaging, similar to that observed in the early stages of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). However, further pathological analyses of this model at the molecular level are needed to validate(More)
For a pregnancy to be established, initial apposition and adhesion of the blastocyst to maternal endometrium must occur in a coordinated manner; however, a key factor(s) that mediates the trophoblast cell migration and attachment to the apical surface of the endometrium has not been identified. In this study, we examined the effect of an endometrial(More)