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BACKGROUND Since its discovery in the early 1980s, O-linked-beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), a single sugar modification on the hydroxyl group of serine or threonine residues, has changed our views of protein glycosylation. While other forms of protein glycosylation modify proteins on the cell surface or within luminal compartments of the secretory(More)
Recent findings suggest a pivotal role for mitochondria-associated hexokinase in the regulation of apoptosis in animal cells. In this study, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of a hexokinase-encoding Hxk1 caused necrotic lesions on leaves, abnormal leaf morphology, and retarded plant growth in Nicotiana benthamiana. Hxk1 was associated with the(More)
The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is activated during the malignant transformation of keratinocytes that originate from the human uterine cervix. Dkk1, 2 and 4 have been shown to modulate the Wnt-induced stabilization of the beta-catenin signaling pathway. However, the function of Dkk3 in this pathway is unknown. Comparison of the Dkk3 gene expression(More)
Beta-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine is a dynamic post-translational modification involved in protein regulation in a manner similar to phosphorylation. Removal of N-acetylglucosamine is regulated by beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase), which was previously shown to be a substrate of caspase-3 in vitro. Here we show that O-GlcNAcase is cleaved by(More)
Unloading of skeletal muscle causes atrophy and altered contractility. To identify major muscle proteins responding significantly to the altered loading and to elucidate how the contractile alterations reflect potential proteomic modifications, we examined protein expression in the rat soleus muscle during 3-week hindlimb suspension and 2-week reloading.(More)
Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a pivotal role in the elimination of injured or unwanted cells during diverse physiological and developmental conditions in organisms. However in contrast to the animal system, signaling pathways and molecular mechanism of PCD are largely unknown in plants. We previously reported that silencing of NbPAF encoding the alpha6(More)
Pirt is a membrane protein that is specifically expressed in the peripheral nervous system, where it has been shown to increase the sensitivity of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel and modulate its role in heat pain. The broad expression of Pirt among dorsal root ganglion neurons suggests it may modulate other transient receptor(More)
Primary sensory neurons in the DRG play an essential role in initiating pain by detecting painful stimuli in the periphery. Tissue injury can sensitize DRG neurons, causing heightened pain sensitivity, often leading to chronic pain. Despite the functional importance, how DRG neurons function at a population level is unclear due to the lack of suitable(More)
Induction of glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) is a ubiquitous intracellular response to stresses such as hypoxia, glucose starvation and acidosis. The induction of GRPs offers some protection against these stresses in vitro, but the specific role of GRPs in vivo remains unclear. Hibernating bats present a good in vivo model to address this question. The(More)
Tumor hypoxia, which is caused by the rapid proliferation of tumor cells and aberrant vasculature in tumors, results in inadequate supplies of oxygen and nutrients to tumor cells. Paradoxically, these unfavorable growth conditions benefit tumor cell survival, although the mechanism is poorly understood. We have demonstrated for the first time that hypoxia(More)