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Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone), a flavonoid originated from the root of a medicinal herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory activities in various cell types including macrophages. In this work, we have found that wogonin is a potent neuroprotector from natural source. Wogonin inhibited inflammatory(More)
Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cell type in the brain, provide metabolic and trophic support to neurons and modulate synaptic activity. In response to a brain injury, astrocytes proliferate and become hypertrophic with an increased expression of intermediate filament proteins. This process is collectively referred to as reactive astrocytosis. Lipocalin(More)
The microglial activation plays an important role in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases by secreting various proinflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic factors. Inhibition of microglial activation may alleviate neurodegenerative processes. To search for novel therapeutic agents against neuroinflammatory diseases, several fluorovinyloxyacetamide(More)
TLRs mediate diverse signaling after recognition of evolutionary conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as LPS and lipopeptides. Both TLR2 and TLR4 are known to trigger a protective immune response as well as cellular apoptosis. In this study, we present evidence that TLR4, but not TLR2, mediates an autoregulatory apoptosis of activated(More)
In the present study, we investigated the neurotoxicity of bisphenol A [BPA; 2,2-bis-(4 hydroxyphenyl) propane] and the underlying mechanisms of action in mouse hippocampal HT-22 cells. BPA, known to be a xenoestrogen, is used in the production of water bottles, cans, and teeth suture materials. BPA-treated HT-22 cells showed lower cell viability than did(More)
Hypoxia is a common cause of cell death and is implicated in many disease processes including stroke and chronic degenerative disorders. In response to hypoxia, cells express a variety of genes, which allow adaptation to altered metabolic demands, decreased oxygen demands, and the removal of irreversibly damaged cells. Using polymerase chain reaction-based(More)
Donepezil is a reversible and noncompetitive cholinesterase inhibitor. The drug is considered as a first-line treatment in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Recently, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of the drug have been reported. "Cholinergic anti-inflammation pathway" has major implications in these effects. Here, we(More)
Hypoxia is an important biological signal that regulates a wide variety of physiological responses. At the same time, hypoxia is involved in multiple pathological situations. In particular, hypoxia is closely associated with neural injury in the brain. Hypoxia has been recently proposed as a neuroinflammatogen, as it can induce the inflammatory activation(More)
Microglia are innate immune cells in the central nervous system. Activation of microglia plays an important role in the processes of several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and HIV dementia. Activated microglia can produce various proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO), which may exert neurotoxic(More)
Hypoxia is one of the important physiological stimuli that are often associated with a variety of pathological states such as ischemia, respiratory diseases, and tumorigenesis. In the central nervous system, hypoxia that is accompanied by cerebral ischemia not only causes neuronal cell injury, but may also induce pathological microglial activation. We have(More)