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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reproducibly associated variants within introns of FTO with increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although the molecular mechanisms linking these noncoding variants with obesity are not immediately obvious, subsequent studies in mice demonstrated that FTO expression levels influence body mass and(More)
Among autonomic neurons, sympathetic neurons of the major pelvic ganglia (MPG) are unique by expressing low-voltage-activated T-type Ca2+ channels. To date, the T-type Ca2+ channels have been poorly characterized, although they are believed to be potentially important for functions of the MPG neurons. In the present study, thus we investigated(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) has been implicated in synaptic plasticity and other neural functions in the brain. However, the role of individual PI3K isoforms in the brain is unclear. We investigated the role of PI3Kγ in hippocampal-dependent synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions. We found that PI3Kγ has a crucial and specific role in NMDA(More)
Rhythmic cardiac contractions depend on the organized propagation of depolarizing and repolarizing wavefronts. Repolarization is spatially heterogeneous and depends largely on gradients of potassium currents. Gradient disruption in heart disease may underlie susceptibility to fatal arrhythmias, but it is not known how this gradient is established. We show(More)
Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective antineoplastic agent whose use has been limited by its cardiotoxic side effects. Recent studies have established that erythropoietin (EPO), a cytokine essential for red blood cell production, protects against ischemic injury in the heart and other organs. The purpose of this study was to assess whether EPO protects the(More)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a leading cause of sudden death in children and young adults. Abnormalities in several signaling pathways are implicated in the pathogenesis of HCM, but the role of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK MAPK pathway has been controversial. Noonan syndrome (NS) is one of several autosomal-dominant conditions known as RASopathies, which are(More)
Numerous cardiac transcription factors play overlapping roles in both the specification and proliferation of the cardiac tissues and chambers during heart development. It has become increasingly apparent that cardiac transcription factors also play critical roles in the regulation of expression of many functional genes in the prenatal and postnatal hearts.(More)
As smart phones have rapidly proliferated over the past few years, LTE operators endeavor to cope with large mobile data traffic volumes. To solve such problems, we propose a new distributed LTE/EPC network architecture based on SDN, NFV, and cloud computing supporting distributed P-GWs and centralized control plane in LTE/EPC networks. It is designed(More)
The ventricular conduction system (VCS) orchestrates the harmonious contraction in every heartbeat. Defects in the VCS are often associated with life-threatening arrhythmias and also promote adverse remodeling in heart disease. We have previously established that the Irx3 homeobox gene regulates rapid electrical propagation in the VCS by modulating the(More)
Gradients of the fast transient outward K+ current (Ito,f) contribute to heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization in a number of species. Cardiac Ito,f levels and gradients change notably with heart disease. Human cardiac Ito,f appears to be encoded by the Kv4.3 pore-forming α-subunit plus the auxiliary KChIP2 β-subunit while mouse cardiac Ito,f requires(More)