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Opioid drugs, such as morphine, and the endogenous opioid peptides, namely the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins, exert a wide spectrum of physiological and behavioral effects, including effects on pain perception, mood, motor control, and autonomic functions. These effects are mediated via membrane-bound receptors, of which the best characterized are(More)
E-cadherin is a cell surface glycoprotein responsible for Ca2+-dependent intercellular adhesion between epithelial cells; it is also called uvomorulin, L-CAM (ref. 3), cell-CAM 120/80 (ref.4) or Arc-1 (ref. 5). Because blocking the action of E-cadherin by monoclonal antibodies causes dispersion of compact cell colonies, this molecule is thought to be an(More)
Although the development of the vertebrate eye is well described, the number of transcription factors known to be key to this process is still limited. The localized expression of the orphan nuclear receptor Tlx in the optic cup and discrete parts of the central nervous system suggested the possible role of Tlx in the formation or function of these(More)
Much attention has focused on the aetiology of oxidative damage in cellular and organismal ageing. Especially toxic are the reactive oxygen byproducts of respiration and other biological processes. A mev-1(kn1) mutant of Caenorhabditis elegans has been found to be hypersensitive to raised oxygen concentrations. Unlike the wild type, its lifespan decreases(More)
We have identified a novel Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene (termed SOD-4) in Caenorhabditis elegans. Characterization of its complementary DNA revealed that the gene encodes two isoforms by alternative splicing, SOD4-1 and SOD4-2 which differ in their C-terminal exons. Their predicted amino acid sequences include a consensus signal peptide at their(More)
While trying to identify new members of the somatostatin receptor family of G protein-coupled receptors, we isolated cDNAs from a mouse brain library encoding two related receptor-like proteins, designated msl-1 and msl-2, of 380 and 372 amino acids, respectively. There was 61% identity and 71% similarity between the sequences of msl-1 and msl-2. Among(More)
Sodium ions have been shown to reduce the binding of agonists to a number of G protein-linked receptors. They are believed to do so by interacting with aspartate residues in the second membrane-spanning region of these receptors to cause G protein uncoupling, resulting in a diminished affinity of the receptors for agonists. To investigate Na+ regulation of(More)
Prolonged exposure of opioid receptors to agonists can cause desensitization, a cellular event linked to tolerance. Although evidence exists for mu and delta opioid receptor desensitization, much less information is available concerning the in vitro regulation of kappa opioid receptors because no cell lines exist that specifically express this class of(More)
In situ hybridization histochemistry was performed to analyse the distribution of the messenger RNA (mRNA) of three putative somatostatin (SRIF) receptors in rat brain, using oligonucleotide probes derived from the cDNA coding for SSTR-1, SSTR-2, and SSTR-3 receptors. SSTR-1 signals were found in layers V-VI of the cerebral cortex, in primary olfactory(More)
The enkephalins, dynorphins, and endorphins are endogenous opioids which function as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and hormones and are involved in the perception of pain, modulation of behavior, and regulation of autonomic and neuroendocrine function. Pharmacological studies have defined three classes of opioid receptors, designated as delta, kappa,(More)