Kyoko Noguchi

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Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a small, ubiquitous phospholipid that acts as an extracellular signaling molecule by binding to and activating at least five known G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): LPA(1)-LPA(5). They are encoded by distinct genes named LPAR1-LPAR5 in humans and Lpar1-Lpar5 in mice. The biological roles of LPA are diverse and include(More)
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator with diverse physiological and pathological actions on many types of cells. LPA has been widely considered to elicit its biological functions through three types of G protein-coupled receptors, Edg-2 (endothelial cell differentiation gene-2)/LPA1/vzg-1 (ventricular zone gene-1), Edg-4/LPA2, and(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a lysophospholipid, has gained relevance to multiple sclerosis through the discovery of FTY720 (fingolimod), recently approved as an oral treatment for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Its mechanism of action is thought to be immunological through an active phosphorylated metabolite, FTY720-P, that resembles S1P and(More)
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid, and its family of cognate G protein-coupled receptors have demonstrated roles in many biological functions in the nervous system. To date, five LPA receptors have been identified, and additional receptors may exist. Most of these receptors have been genetically deleted in mice toward identifying(More)
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA; 1- or 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate) is a bioactive phospholipid with mitogenic and/or morphological effects on many cell types. In addition, LPA has been reported to play important roles in various biological processes. It was originally thought that the cellular effects of LPA are mediated by three subtypes of G-protein-coupled(More)
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent lipid mediator with a wide variety of biological actions mediated through G protein-coupled receptors (LPA(1-6)). LPA(4) has been identified as a G(13) protein-coupled receptor, but its physiological role is unknown. Here we show that a subset of LPA(4)-deficient embryos did not survive gestation and displayed(More)
Fetal hydrocephalus (FH), characterized by the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid, an enlarged head, and neurological dysfunction, is one of the most common neurological disorders of newborns. Although the etiology of FH remains unclear, it is associated with intracranial hemorrhage. Here, we report that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a blood-borne lipid(More)
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent lipid mediator that evokes a variety of biological responses in many cell types via its specific G protein-coupled receptors. In particular, LPA affects cell morphology, cell survival, and cell cycle progression in neuronal cells. Recently, we identified p2y(9)/GPR23 as a novel fourth LPA receptor, LPA(4) (Noguchi,(More)
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent mediators of inflammation synthesized by the concerted actions of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP), leukotriene C(4) synthase, and additional downstream enzymes, starting with arachidonic acid substrate. CysLTs produced by macrophages, eosinophils, mast cells, and other inflammatory cells(More)
Fetal hypoxia is a common risk factor that has been associated with a range of CNS disorders including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism. Cellular and molecular mechanisms through which hypoxia may damage the developing brain are incompletely understood but are likely to involve disruption of the laminar organization of the cerebral cortex.(More)