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Osteoblasts express Toll like receptor (TLR) 4 and produce osteoclast-activating cytokines in response to the stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It has recently been reported that LPS exerts an inhibitory effect on osteoblast differentiation into osteocytes. However, the molecular mechanisms of this inhibitory effect remain ambiguous. The downstream(More)
LPS signaling is mediated through MyD88-dependent and -independent pathways, activating NF-?B, MAP kinases and IRF3. Cot/Tpl2 is an essential upstream kinase in LPS-mediated activation of ERKs. Here we explore the roles of MyD88 and Cot/Tpl2 in LPS-induced chemokine expression by studying myd88(-/-) and cot/tpl2(-/-) macrophages. Among the nine(More)
SWR/J transgenic (tg) mice were generated expressing the TCR beta chain derived from an anticollagen type II (CII) arthritogenic T cell clone. The SWR/J strain was selected because it is resistant to collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and lacks the V beta gene segment used by the T cell clone. Expression of the tg beta chain on all thymocytes and peripheral(More)
A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using rabbit anti-hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) IgG for human HGF, also known as the scatter factor, has previously been developed for determining increases in serum HGF levels in various liver diseases. The sensitivity limit of the ELISA is, however, approximately 0.2 ng/ml sample, and HGF(More)
Osteoblasts, originating from mesenchymal stem cells, play a pivotal role in bone formation and mineralization. Several transcription factors including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) have been reported to be essential for osteoblast differentiation, whereas the cytoplasmic signal transduction pathways controlling the differentiation process(More)
Osteoblasts differentiate from mesodermal progenitors and play a pivotal role in bone formation and mineralization. Several transcription factors including runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), Osterix (OSX), and activating transcription factor4 (ATF4) are known to be crucial for the process, whereas the upstream signal transduction controlling the(More)
We recently reported on an inflammatory arthropathy resembling rheumatoid arthritis that develops in high incidence among transgenic mice that carry the env-pX region of the human T cell leukemia virus type 1 genome. In an effort to elucidate the pathogenesis of this disease, we found that genes for inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta,(More)
We studied the effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), an animal model of human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Among SOD derivatives studied, only gelatin-SOD conjugate which has prolonged half life in vivo was effective to suppress the development of CIA, while native SOD or gelatin carrier alone was ineffective.(More)
We analyzed the mechanism by which accessory cells support the induction of the proliferation of human peripheral blood T cells by a monoclonal anti-CD3 antibody, OKT3. Cross-linking of T cell receptor/CD3 complex by anti-CD3 coupled to latex beads and the addition of IL-1 are not enough to induce the IL-2 production and proliferation of T cells extensively(More)