Kylene Kehn-Hall

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Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles produced by healthy and virus-infected cells. Exosomes derived from infected cells have been shown to contain viral microRNAs (miRNAs). HIV-1 encodes its own miRNAs that regulate viral and host gene expression. The most abundant HIV-1-derived miRNA, first reported by us and later by others using deep sequencing, is the(More)
Plaque assays remain one of the most accurate methods for the direct quantification of infectious virons and antiviral substances through the counting of discrete plaques (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNA molecules that function to control gene expression and restrict viral replication in host cells. The production of miRNAs is believed to be dependent upon the DICER enzyme. Available evidence suggests that in T lymphocytes, HIV-1 can both suppress and co-opt the host's miRNA pathway for its own benefit. In this(More)
Chromatin remodeling is an essential event for HIV-1 transcription. Over the last two decades this field of research has come to the forefront, as silencing of the HIV-1 provirus through chromatin modifications has been linked to latency. Here, we focus on chromatin remodeling, especially in relation to the transactivator Tat, and review the most important(More)
DNA-paramagnetic silica bead aggregation in a rotating magnetic field facilitates the quantification of DNA with femtogram sensitivity, but yields no sequence-specific information. Here we provide an original description of aggregation inhibition for the detection of DNA and RNA in a sequence-specific manner following loop-mediated isothermal amplification(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat is a 14-kDa viral protein that acts as a potent transactivator by binding to the transactivation-responsive region, a structured RNA element located at the 5' end of all HIV-1 transcripts. Tat transactivates viral gene expression by inducing the phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II(More)
The rate of transcription of the HIV-1 viral genome is mediated by the interaction of the viral protein Tat with the LTR and other transcriptional machinery. These specific interactions can be affected by the state of post-translational modifications on Tat. Previously, we have shown that Tat can be phosphorylated and acetylated in vivo resulting in an(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat is present on both ends of the integrated viral genome and contains regulatory elements needed for transcriptional initiation and elongation. Post-integration, a highly ordered chromatin structure consisting of at least five nucleosomes, is found at the 5' long terminal repeat, the(More)
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a highly pathogenic arthropod-borne virus infecting a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Of particular interest is the nonstructural NSs protein, which forms large filamentous fibril bundles in the nucleus. Past studies have shown NSs to be a multifaceted protein important for virulence through modulation of the interferon(More)
The HIV-1 protein Tat is a critical regulator of viral transcription and has also been implicated as a mediator of HIV-1 induced neurotoxicity. Here using a high throughput screening assay, we identified the GSK-3 inhibitor 6BIO, as a Tat-dependent HIV-1 transcriptional inhibitor. Its ability to inhibit HIV-1 transcription was confirmed in TZM-bl cells,(More)