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Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, affect 10% of the world's population and are largely due to chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Species differences in embryonic development and architecture of the adult stomach make animal models suboptimal for studying human stomach organogenesis and pathogenesis, and there is no(More)
Here we describe a protocol for generating 3D human intestinal tissues (called organoids) in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). To generate intestinal organoids, pluripotent stem cells are first differentiated into FOXA2(+)SOX17(+) endoderm by treating the cells with activin A for 3 d. After endoderm induction, the pluripotent stem cells are(More)
Enteroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract play a central role in metabolism, digestion, satiety and lipid absorption, yet their development remains poorly understood. Here we show that Arx, a homeodomain-containing transcription factor, is required for the normal development of mouse and human enteroendocrine cells. Arx expression is detected(More)
Despite the global prevalence of gastric disease, there are few adequate models in which to study the fundus epithelium of the human stomach. We differentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into gastric organoids containing fundic epithelium by first identifying and then recapitulating key events in embryonic fundus development. We found that(More)
Congenital anomalies of the kidney and the urinary tract (CAKUT) represent a major source of morbidity and mortality in children. Several factors (PAX, SOX,WNT, RET, GDFN, and others) play critical roles during the differentiation process that leads to the formation of nephron epithelia. We have identified mutations in SOX17, an HMG-box transcription factor(More)
Neurogenin3(+) (Ngn3(+)) progenitor cells in the developing pancreas give rise to five endocrine cell types secreting insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin. Gastrin is a hormone produced primarily by G-cells in the stomach, where it functions to stimulate acid secretion by gastric parietal cells. Gastrin is expressed in the(More)
Recent advances in generating pancreatic cell types from human pluripotent stem cells has depended on our knowledge of the developmental processes that regulate pancreas development in vivo. The developmental events between gastrulation and formation of the embryonic pancreatic primordia are both rapid and dynamic and studies in frog, fish, chick, and mouse(More)
The stomach is a digestive organ that has important roles in human physiology and pathophysiology. The developmental origin of the stomach is the embryonic foregut, which also gives rise a number of other structures. There are several signaling pathways and transcription factors that are known to regulate stomach development at different stages, including(More)