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OBJECTIVES To update previous systematic reviews of 12-month prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by general populations; to explore trends in CAM use by national populations; to develop and apply a brief tool for assessing methodological quality of published CAM-use prevalence surveys. DESIGN Nine databases were searched for(More)
Many biological systems are composed of unreliable components which self-organize efficiently into systems that can tackle complex problems. One such example is the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum which is an amoeba-like organism that seeks food sources and efficiently distributes nutrients throughout its cell body. The distribution of nutrients is(More)
The phenomenon of self-organization is pervasive in nature , where biological organisms efficiently self-organize unreliable and dynamically changing components to develop a wide diversity of functions. In addition, these biological organisms enjoy the desirable properties of robust-ness to the failure of individual components, adaptivity to changing(More)
Many biological systems are composed of unreliable components which self-organize effectively into systems that achieve a balance between efficiency and robustness. One such example is the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum which is an amoeba-like organism that seeks and connects food sources and efficiently distributes nutrients throughout its cell(More)
This article focuses on the degree to which friends' influence on substance use is conditioned by the consistency between their behavior and that of schoolmates (individuals enrolled in the same school, but not identified as friends), contributing to the literature on the complexity of interactive social influences during adolescence. Specifically, it(More)
Recent theoretical and empirical research in deterrence has detected evidence of differential deterrability, or that the effect of sanctions is not uniform across persons. Important questions in this area remain to be explored, and this study considered a central question: Whether important across-individual variability in risk perceptions can be tied to(More)
In this paper we use panel data on the use of consultants for 1,544 firms over six years to provide insights on the role that compensation consultants play on determining the level and composition of CEO pay. Year-by-year and pooled regressions show positive associations between the use of consultants and both the level of pay and the use of equity-based(More)
Though scholars recognize that peer-based risks for offending are especially robust, a handful of researchers have started to question whether the vulnerability to these risks varies across people in theoretically meaningful ways. For instance, drawing on theory and empirical research, there is reason to suspect that individuals of high and low morality are(More)
Given an arbitrary deployment of sensor nodes, one fundamental design issue in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is to connect the source nodes collecting sensing data to the sinks so that sensing data flows efficiently and reliably to the sinks. To facilitate such data collection, we require a path formation protocol that will determine multi-hop routes(More)
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