Kyle T. S. Pattinson

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PURPOSE To estimate the importance of respiratory and cardiac effects on signal variability found in functional magnetic resonance imaging data recorded from the brainstem. MATERIALS AND METHODS A modified version of the retrospective image correction (RETROICOR) method (Glover et al, [2000] Magn Reson Med 44:162-167) was implemented on resting brainstem(More)
Investigations into the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI signal have used respiratory challenges with the aim of probing cerebrovascular physiology. Such challenges have altered the inspired partial pressures of either carbon dioxide or oxygen, typically to a fixed and constant level (fixed inspired challenge (FIC)). The resulting(More)
Arterial spin labelling (ASL) has proved to be a promising magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique to measure brain perfusion. In this study, volumetric three-dimensional (3D) gradient and spin echo (GRASE) ASL was used to produce cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT) maps during rest and during an infusion of remifentanil. Gradient(More)
The brainstem is directly involved in controlling blood pressure, respiration, sleep/wake cycles, pain modulation, motor, and cardiac output. As such it is of significant basic science and clinical interest. However, the brainstem's location close to major arteries and adjacent pulsatile cerebrospinal fluid filled spaces, means that it is difficult to(More)
This study combined functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging techniques, optimized for the human brainstem, to investigate activity in brainstem respiratory control centres in a group of 12 healthy human volunteers. We stimulated respiration with carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and utilized novel methodology to separate its vascular from its neuronal(More)
The periaqueductal grey (PAG) is a nucleus within the midbrain, and evidence from animal models has identified its role in many homeostatic systems including respiration. Animal models have also demonstrated a columnar structure that subdivides the PAG into four columns on each side, and these subdivisions have different functions with regard to(More)
BACKGROUND Dyspnea is the major source of disability in COPD. In COPD, environmental cues (eg, the prospect of having to climb stairs) become associated with dyspnea and may trigger dyspnea even before physical activity commences. We hypothesized that brain activation relating to such cues would be different between patients with COPD and healthy control(More)
PURPOSE Breathlessness is a complex set of symptoms that are comprised of both sensory and affective (emotional) dimensions. While ventilation is now understood to be a potential limiter to performance in highly-trained individuals, the contribution of breathlessness-anxiety in those nearing maximal ventilation during intense exercise has not yet been(More)
Chronic dyspnoea is a devastating symptom that debilitates millions of people worldwide. It causes a large burden on both patient and carer, and significant costs to society and health services. Treatment options are limited. Much effort has been directed at optimising lung function and improving exercise capacity, however, the brain mechanisms underlying(More)
Dyspnea is the highly threatening experience of breathlessness experienced by patients with diverse pathologies, including respiratory, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular diseases, cancer and panic disorder. This debilitating symptom is especially prominent in the elderly and the obese, two growing populations in the Western world. It has further been found(More)