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Although there have been a number of studies of end-user software development tasks, few of them have considered gender issues for real end-user developers in real-world environments for end-user programming. In order to be trusted, the results of such laboratory studies must always be re-evaluated with fewer controls , more closely reflecting real-world(More)
In recent years, the software engineering community has begun to study program navigation and tools to support it. Some of these navigation tools are very useful, but they lack a theoretical basis that could reduce the need for ad hoc tool building approaches by explaining what is fundamentally necessary in such tools. In this paper, we present PFIS(More)
In recent years, systems have emerged that enable end users to " mash " together existing web services to build new web sites. However, little is known about how well end users succeed at building such mashups, or what they do if they do not succeed at their first attempt. To help fill this gap, we took a fresh look, from a debugging perspective, at the(More)
Recent research has begun to report that female end-user programmers are often more reluctant than males to employ features that are useful for testing and de-bugging. These earlier findings suggest that, unless such features can be changed in some appropriate way, there are likely to be important gender differences in end-user programmers' benefits from(More)
People who are blind or low vision may have a harder time participating in exercise classes due to inaccessibility, travel difficulties, or lack of experience. Exergames can encourage exercise at home and help lower the barrier to trying new activities, but there are often accessibility issues since they rely on visual feedback to help align body positions.(More)
Blind mobile device users face security risks such as inaccessible authentication methods, and aural and visual eavesdropping. We interviewed 13 blind smartphone users and found that most participants were unaware of or not concerned about potential security threats. Not a single participant used optional authentication methods such as a password-protected(More)
—The Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) is a validated reaction time (RT) test used to assess aspects of sleep loss including alertness and sleepiness. PVT typically requires a physical button to assess RT, which minimizes the effect of execution time (the time taken to perform a gesture) on RT. When translating this application to mobile devices, a(More)