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Behavioral transitions characterize development. Young infant rats paradoxically prefer odors that are paired with shock, but older pups learn aversions. This transition is amygdala and corticosterone dependent. Using microarrays and microdialysis, we found downregulated dopaminergic presynaptic function in the amygdala with preference learning.(More)
BACKGROUND Early life adverse experience alters adult emotional and cognitive development. Here we assess early life learning about adverse experience and its consequences on adult fear conditioning and amygdala activity. METHODS Neonatal rats were conditioned daily from 8-12 days-old with paired odor (conditioned stimulus, CS) .5mA shock, unpaired,(More)
Maternal odors guide rat pups to their mother and control social interactions with her. Pups must learn to approach the odor, and rat pups of this age have developed unique learning capabilities, which are likely a mammalian parallel to imprinting, that permit this early attachment learning, even for noxious stimuli. For
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