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F1 is a distributed relational database system built at Google to support the AdWords business. F1 is a hybrid database that combines high availability, the scalability of NoSQL systems like Bigtable, and the consistency and us-ability of traditional SQL databases. F1 is built on Spanner , which provides synchronous cross-datacenter replica-tion and strong(More)
BACKGROUND Data generated from liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based studies of a biological sample can contain large amounts of biologically significant information in the form of proteins, peptides, and metabolites. Interpreting this data involves inferring the masses and abundances of biomolecules injected into(More)
Many of the services that are critical to Google's ad business have historically been backed by MySQL. We have recently migrated several of these services to F1, a new RDBMS developed at Google. F1 implements rich relational database features, including a strictly enforced schema, a powerful parallel SQL query engine, general transactions, change tracking(More)
Immunization of experimental animals with myelin basic protein (MBP) or with specific MBP encephalitogenic determinants induces an autoimmune central nervous system (CNS) disease, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, often studied as a model for human demyelinating disorders. This study examines the antigenic determinants of MBP recognized by human T(More)
Some bacteria that are common human pathogens produce protein toxins that are potent activators of human T lymphocytes expressing certain types of T-cell receptors. In this study we examined the ability of staphylococcal toxins to stimulate human T lymphocytes that also recognized the myelin autoantigens myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein. T-cell(More)
In clinical trials, copolymer I (Cop 1) appears to reduce the number of exacerbations in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The mechanism of this effect is uncertain, but Cop 1 also reduces the severity of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and inhibits the response of murine myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T cells. We tested(More)
Human T-cell lines and clones reactive with whole human myelin were isolated from three normal subjects by in vitro sensitization techniques. The CD4+ T-cell lines were maintained in long-term culture by periodic antigen restimulation with myelin and use of interleukin-2. Although myelin basic protein (MBP) represents only about 10% of the dry weight of(More)
Recent image compression schemes have focused primarily on wavelet transforms, culminating in the JPEG-2000 standard. Block based DCT compression, on which the older JPEG standard is based, has been largely neglected because wavelet based coding methods appear to offer better image quality. This paper presents a simple compression algorithm that uses(More)
gamma delta T cells are over-represented in some multiple sclerosis (MS) parenchymal lesions and in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of individuals with early MS. In this investigation we studied the T cell-T cell interactions between human, myelin basic protein-reactive T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from MS and control(More)
Cytotoxic T cells reactive with myelin basic protein (MBP) may be isolated from most human subjects. Since activated T cells express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens, we assessed whether MBP-specific, CD4+ T cells could present MBP or synthetic MBP peptides to themselves and whether this provoked self lysis. We examined two(More)
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