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A convergence between consumer electronics and virtual reality is occurring. We present an immersive head-mounted-display-based, wearable 3D user interface that is inexpensive (less than $900 USD), robust (sourceless tracking), and portable (lightweight and untethered). While the current display has known deficiencies, the user tracking quality is within(More)
This paper presents a system which allows medical students to experience the interaction between a patient and a medical doctor using natural methods of interaction with a high level of immersion. We also present our experiences with a pilot group of medical and physician assistant students at various levels of training. They interacted with projector-based(More)
Any new tool introduced for education needs to be validated. We developed a virtual human experience called the Virtual Objective Structured Clinical Examination (VOSCE). In the VOSCE, a medical student examines a life-size virtual human who is presenting symptoms of an illness. The student is then graded on interview skills. As part of a medical school(More)
This paper provides key insights into the construction and evaluation of interpersonal simulators¿systems that enable interpersonal interaction with virtual humans. Using an interpersonal simulator, two studies were conducted that compare interactions with a virtual human to interactions with a similar real human. The specific interpersonal scenario(More)
BACKGROUND At most institutions, medical students learn communication skills through the use of standardized patients (SPs), but SPs are time and resource expensive. Virtual patients (VPs) may offer several advantages over SPs, but little data exist regarding the use of VPs in teaching communication skills. Therefore, we report our initial efforts to create(More)
4 The purpose of this paper is to summarize a theoretical perspective toward the development of a virtual reality innovation in education. Next, we will describe a virtual character project that is impacting the training of medical students in two institutions. In doing so, we will present a summary of three studies completed over the last two years,(More)
In this paper, we present results from a study that shows that a dark skin-tone VH agent elicits user behavior consistent with real world skin-tone biases. Results from a study with medical students (n=21), show participant empathy towards a dark skin-tone VH patient was predicted by their measured bias towards African-Americans. Real world bias was(More)
This paper presents our experiences in evolving the Virtual Objective Structured Clinical Exam (VOSCE) system. This system allows medical students to experience the interaction between a patient and a medical doctor using natural methods of interaction with a high level of immersion. These features enable the system to provide training on medical(More)
Virtual patients have great potential for training patient-doctor communication skills. There are two approaches to producing the virtual human speech: synthesized speech or recorded speech. The tradeoffs in flexibility, fidelity, and cost raise an interesting development decision: which speech approach is most appropriate for virtual patients? Two groups(More)