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BACKGROUND Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is common and lethal. It has been suggested that OHCA witnessed by EMS providers is a predictor of survival because advanced help is immediately available. We examined EMS witnessed OHCA from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) to determine the effect of EMS witnessed vs. bystander witnessed and(More)
A subgroup of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have significant language impairments (phonology, grammar, vocabulary), although such impairments are not considered to be core symptoms of and are not unique to ASD. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) display similar impairments in language. Given evidence for phenotypic and(More)
BACKGROUND The decision-making processes used for out-of-hospital trauma triage and hospital selection in regionalized trauma systems remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to assess the process of field triage decision making in an established trauma system. METHODS We used a mixed methods approach, including emergency medical services(More)
Regionalized trauma care has been widely implemented in the United States, with field triage by emergency medical services (EMS) playing an important role in identifying seriously injured patients for transport to major trauma centers. In this study we estimated hospital-level differences in the adjusted cost of acute care for injured patients transported(More)
This paper describes a crosslinguistic disfluency perception experiment. We tested the recognizability of pause fillers and partial words in English, German and Mandarin. Subjects were speakers of English with no knowledge of Mandarin or Ger-man. We found that subjects could identify disfluent from fluent utterances at a level above chance. Pause fillers(More)
This study is a reanalysis of the external predictors of the use of negative concord in Philadelphia, using archival data from the Language Change and Variation survey. It is shown that the interpretation of the effects of the various socioeconomic measures reported by Labov (2001) was biased by their multicollinearity and by per-subject differences. A new(More)
IMPORTANCE Assessment of morbidity is an important component of evaluating interventions for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). OBJECTIVE We evaluated among survivors of OHCA cognition, functional status, health-related quality of life and depression as functions of patient and emergency medical services (EMS) factors. DESIGN(More)
Speech recognizers are typically trained with data from a standard dialect and do not generalize to non-standard dialects. Mis-match mainly occurs in the acoustic realization of words, which is represented by acoustic models and pronunciation lexicon. Standard techniques for addressing this mismatch are generative in nature and include acoustic model(More)
Gradient wordlikeness judgements do not necessarily imply that a gradient well-formedness system underlies them; gradient judgements may be an artifact of gradient rating tasks. Dubious architectural assumptions are needed for speakers to report gradient well-formedness judgements. Simple baselines beer account for gradient well-formedness judgements than(More)