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Bulk- and nano-scale titanium dioxide (TiO2) has found use in human food products for controlling color, texture, and moisture. Once ingested, and because of their small size, nano-scale TiO2 can interact with a number of epithelia that line the human gastrointestinal tract. One such epithelium responsible for nutrient absorption is the small intestine,(More)
Carbon nanotube (CNT) production is rapidly growing, and there is a need for robust analytical methods to quantify CNTs at environmentally relevant concentrations in complex organic matrices. Because physical and thermal properties vary among different types of CNTs, we studied 14 single-walled (SWCNTs) and multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs). Our aim was to apply a(More)
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is widely used in food products, which will eventually enter wastewater treatment plants and terrestrial or aquatic environments, yet little is known about the fraction of this TiO2 that is nanoscale, or the physical and chemical properties of TiO2 that influence its human and environmental fate or toxicity. Instead of analyzing TiO2(More)
Inhaled multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) may cause adverse pulmonary responses due to their nanoscale, fibrous morphology and/or biopersistance. This study tested multiple factors (dose, time, physicochemical characteristics, and administration method) shown to affect MWCNT toxicity with the hypothesis that these factors will influence significantly(More)
The use of personal protective gear made from omniphobic materials that easily shed drops of all sizes could provide enhanced protection from direct exposure to most liquid-phase biological and chemical hazards and facilitate the postexposure decontamination of the gear. In recent literature, lubricated nanostructured fabrics are seen as attractive(More)
Gallium-based liquid metals are of interest for a variety of applications including flexible electronics, soft robotics, and biomedical devices. Still, nano- to microscale device fabrication with these materials is challenging because, despite having surface tension 10 times higher than water, they strongly adhere to a majority of substrates. This unusually(More)
Extraction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from biological matrices such as rat lung tissue is integral to developing a quantification method for evaluating the environmental and human health exposure and toxicity of CNTs. The ability of various chemical treatment methods, including Solvable (2.5% sodium hydroxide/surfactant mixture), ammonium hydroxide, nitric(More)
Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine.(More)
Implantation of synthetic material, including vascular grafts, pacemakers, etc. results in the foreign body reaction and the formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) at the exterior surface of the implant. Despite the long-standing premise that fusion of mononucleated macrophages results in the formation of MGCs, to date, no published study has shown(More)